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<?php
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/**
 * @file
 * API for handling file uploads and server file management.
 */

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use Drupal\Component\Utility\Unicode;
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use Drupal\Component\Utility\UrlHelper;
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use Drupal\Component\PhpStorage\FileStorage;
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use Drupal\Component\Utility\Bytes;
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use Drupal\Component\Utility\SafeMarkup;
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use Drupal\Core\File\FileSystem;
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use Drupal\Core\StreamWrapper\PublicStream;
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use Drupal\Core\StreamWrapper\StreamWrapperInterface;
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use Drupal\Core\StreamWrapper\PrivateStream;
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/**
 * Default mode for new directories. See drupal_chmod().
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 *
 * @deprecated in Drupal 8.0.x-dev, will be removed before Drupal 9.0.0.
 *   Use \Drupal\Core\File\FileSystem::CHMOD_DIRECTORY.
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 */
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const FILE_CHMOD_DIRECTORY = FileSystem::CHMOD_DIRECTORY;
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/**
 * Default mode for new files. See drupal_chmod().
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 *
 * @deprecated in Drupal 8.0.x-dev, will be removed before Drupal 9.0.0.
 *   Use \Drupal\Core\File\FileSystem::CHMOD_FILE.
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 */
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const FILE_CHMOD_FILE = FileSystem::CHMOD_FILE;
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/**
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 * @defgroup file File interface
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 * @{
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 * Common file handling functions.
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 *
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 * Fields on the file entity:
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 * - fid: File ID
 * - uid: The {users}.uid of the user who is associated with the file.
 * - filename: Name of the file with no path components. This may differ from
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 *   the basename of the filepath if the file is renamed to avoid overwriting
 *   an existing file.
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 * - uri: URI of the file.
 * - filemime: The file's MIME type.
 * - filesize: The size of the file in bytes.
 * - status: A bitmapped field indicating the status of the file. The first 8
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 *   bits are reserved for Drupal core. The least significant bit indicates
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 *   temporary (0) or permanent (1). Temporary files will be removed during
 *   cron runs if they are older than the configuration value
 *   "system.file.temporary_maximum_age", and if clean-up is enabled. Permanent
 *   files will not be removed.
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 * - timestamp: UNIX timestamp for the date the file was added to the database.
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 */

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/**
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 * Flag used by file_prepare_directory() -- create directory if not present.
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 */
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const FILE_CREATE_DIRECTORY = 1;
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/**
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 * Flag used by file_prepare_directory() -- file permissions may be changed.
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 */
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const FILE_MODIFY_PERMISSIONS = 2;
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/**
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 * Flag for dealing with existing files: Appends number until name is unique.
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 */
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const FILE_EXISTS_RENAME = 0;
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/**
 * Flag for dealing with existing files: Replace the existing file.
 */
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const FILE_EXISTS_REPLACE = 1;
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/**
 * Flag for dealing with existing files: Do nothing and return FALSE.
 */
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const FILE_EXISTS_ERROR = 2;
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/**
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 * Indicates that the file is permanent and should not be deleted.
 *
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 * Temporary files older than the system.file.temporary_maximum_age
 * configuration value will be, if clean-up not disabled, removed during cron
 * runs, but permanent files will not be removed during the file garbage
 * collection process.
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 */
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const FILE_STATUS_PERMANENT = 1;
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/**
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 * Provides Drupal stream wrapper registry.
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 *
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 * @param int $filter
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 *   (Optional) Filters out all types except those with an on bit for each on
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 *   bit in $filter. For example, if $filter is
 *   StreamWrapperInterface::WRITE_VISIBLE, which is equal to
 *   (StreamWrapperInterface::READ | StreamWrapperInterface::WRITE |
 *   StreamWrapperInterface::VISIBLE), then only stream wrappers with all three
 *   of these bits set are returned. Defaults to StreamWrapperInterface::ALL,
 *   which returns all registered stream wrappers.
 *
 * @return array
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 *   An array keyed by scheme, with values containing an array of information
 *   about the stream wrapper, as returned by hook_stream_wrappers(). If $filter
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 *   is omitted or set to StreamWrapperInterface::ALL, the entire Drupal stream
 *   wrapper registry is returned. Otherwise only the stream wrappers whose
 *   'type' bitmask has an on bit for each bit specified in $filter are
 *   returned.
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 *
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 * @deprecated in Drupal 8.x-dev, will be removed before Drupal 8.0.
 *   Use \Drupal::service('stream_wrapper_manager')->getWrappers().
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 */
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function file_get_stream_wrappers($filter = StreamWrapperInterface::ALL) {
  return \Drupal::service('stream_wrapper_manager')->getWrappers($filter);
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}

/**
 * Returns the stream wrapper class name for a given scheme.
 *
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 * @param string $scheme
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 *   Stream scheme.
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 *
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 * @return string|bool
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 *   Return string if a scheme has a registered handler, or FALSE.
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 *
 * @deprecated in Drupal 8.x-dev, will be removed before Drupal 8.0.
 *   Use \Drupal::service('stream_wrapper_manager')->getClass().
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 */
function file_stream_wrapper_get_class($scheme) {
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  return \Drupal::service('stream_wrapper_manager')->getClass($scheme);
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}

/**
 * Returns the scheme of a URI (e.g. a stream).
 *
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 * @deprecated in Drupal 8.0.x-dev, will be removed before Drupal 9.0.0.
 *   Use \Drupal\Core\File\FileSystem::uriScheme().
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 */
function file_uri_scheme($uri) {
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  return \Drupal::service('file_system')->uriScheme($uri);
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}

/**
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 * Checks that the scheme of a stream URI is valid.
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 *
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 * @deprecated in Drupal 8.0.x-dev, will be removed before Drupal 9.0.0.
 *   Use \Drupal\Core\File\FileSystem::validScheme().
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 */
function file_stream_wrapper_valid_scheme($scheme) {
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  return \Drupal::service('file_system')->validScheme($scheme);
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}

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/**
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 * Returns the part of a URI after the schema.
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 *
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 * @param string $uri
 *   A stream, referenced as "scheme://target" or "data:target".
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 *
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 * @return string|bool
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 *   A string containing the target (path), or FALSE if none.
 *   For example, the URI "public://sample/test.txt" would return
 *   "sample/test.txt".
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 *
 * @see file_uri_scheme()
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 */
function file_uri_target($uri) {
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  // Remove the scheme from the URI and remove erroneous leading or trailing,
  // forward-slashes and backslashes.
  $target = trim(preg_replace('/^[\w\-]+:\/\/|^data:/', '', $uri), '\/');
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  // If nothing was replaced, the URI doesn't have a valid scheme.
  return $target !== $uri ? $target : FALSE;
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}

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/**
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 * Gets the default file stream implementation.
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 *
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 * @return string
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 *   'public', 'private' or any other file scheme defined as the default.
 */
function file_default_scheme() {
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  return \Drupal::config('system.file')->get('default_scheme');
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}

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/**
 * Normalizes a URI by making it syntactically correct.
 *
 * A stream is referenced as "scheme://target".
 *
 * The following actions are taken:
 * - Remove trailing slashes from target
 * - Trim erroneous leading slashes from target. e.g. ":///" becomes "://".
 *
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 * @param string $uri
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 *   String reference containing the URI to normalize.
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 *
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 * @return string
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 *   The normalized URI.
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 */
function file_stream_wrapper_uri_normalize($uri) {
  $scheme = file_uri_scheme($uri);

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  if (file_stream_wrapper_valid_scheme($scheme)) {
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    $target = file_uri_target($uri);

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    if ($target !== FALSE) {
      $uri = $scheme . '://' . $target;
    }
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  }
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  return $uri;
}

/**
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 * Returns a reference to the stream wrapper class responsible for a given URI.
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 *
 * The scheme determines the stream wrapper class that should be
 * used by consulting the stream wrapper registry.
 *
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 * @param string $uri
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 *   A stream, referenced as "scheme://target".
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 *
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 * @return \Drupal\Core\StreamWrapper\StreamWrapperInterface|bool
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 *   Returns a new stream wrapper object appropriate for the given URI or FALSE
 *   if no registered handler could be found. For example, a URI of
 *   "private://example.txt" would return a new private stream wrapper object
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 *   (Drupal\Core\StreamWrapper\PrivateStream).
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 *
 * * @deprecated in Drupal 8.x-dev, will be removed before Drupal 8.0.
 *   Use \Drupal::service('stream_wrapper_manager')->getViaUri().
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 */
function file_stream_wrapper_get_instance_by_uri($uri) {
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  return \Drupal::service('stream_wrapper_manager')->getViaUri($uri);
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}

/**
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 * Returns a reference to the stream wrapper class responsible for a scheme.
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 *
 * This helper method returns a stream instance using a scheme. That is, the
 * passed string does not contain a "://". For example, "public" is a scheme
 * but "public://" is a URI (stream). This is because the later contains both
 * a scheme and target despite target being empty.
 *
 * Note: the instance URI will be initialized to "scheme://" so that you can
 * make the customary method calls as if you had retrieved an instance by URI.
 *
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 * @param string $scheme
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 *   If the stream was "public://target", "public" would be the scheme.
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 *
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 * @return \Drupal\Core\StreamWrapper\StreamWrapperInterface|bool
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 *   Returns a new stream wrapper object appropriate for the given $scheme.
 *   For example, for the public scheme a stream wrapper object
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 *   (Drupal\Core\StreamWrapper\PublicStream).
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 *   FALSE is returned if no registered handler could be found.
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 *
 * @deprecated in Drupal 8.x-dev, will be removed before Drupal 8.0.
 *   Use \Drupal::service('stream_wrapper_manager')->getViaScheme().
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 */
function file_stream_wrapper_get_instance_by_scheme($scheme) {
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  return \Drupal::service('stream_wrapper_manager')->getViaScheme($scheme);
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}

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/**
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 * Creates a web-accessible URL for a stream to an external or local file.
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 *
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 * Compatibility: normal paths and stream wrappers.
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 *
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 * There are two kinds of local files:
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 * - "managed files", i.e. those stored by a Drupal-compatible stream wrapper.
 *   These are files that have either been uploaded by users or were generated
 *   automatically (for example through CSS aggregation).
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 * - "shipped files", i.e. those outside of the files directory, which ship as
 *   part of Drupal core or contributed modules or themes.
 *
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 * @param string $uri
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 *   The URI to a file for which we need an external URL, or the path to a
 *   shipped file.
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 *
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 * @return string
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 *   A string containing a URL that may be used to access the file.
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 *   If the provided string already contains a preceding 'http', 'https', or
 *   '/', nothing is done and the same string is returned. If a stream wrapper
 *   could not be found to generate an external URL, then FALSE is returned.
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 *
 * @see http://drupal.org/node/515192
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 * @see file_url_transform_relative()
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 */
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function file_create_url($uri) {
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  // Allow the URI to be altered, e.g. to serve a file from a CDN or static
  // file server.
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  \Drupal::moduleHandler()->alter('file_url', $uri);
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  $scheme = file_uri_scheme($uri);

  if (!$scheme) {
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    // Allow for:
    // - root-relative URIs (e.g. /foo.jpg in http://example.com/foo.jpg)
    // - protocol-relative URIs (e.g. //bar.jpg, which is expanded to
    //   http://example.com/bar.jpg by the browser when viewing a page over
    //   HTTP and to https://example.com/bar.jpg when viewing a HTTPS page)
    // Both types of relative URIs are characterized by a leading slash, hence
    // we can use a single check.
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    if (Unicode::substr($uri, 0, 1) == '/') {
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      return $uri;
    }
    else {
      // If this is not a properly formatted stream, then it is a shipped file.
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      // Therefore, return the urlencoded URI with the base URL prepended.
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      $options = UrlHelper::parse($uri);
      $path = $GLOBALS['base_url'] . '/' . UrlHelper::encodePath($options['path']);
      // Append the query.
      if ($options['query']) {
        $path .= '?' . UrlHelper::buildQuery($options['query']);
      }

      // Append fragment.
      if ($options['fragment']) {
        $path .= '#' . $options['fragment'];
      }

      return $path;
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    }
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  }
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  elseif ($scheme == 'http' || $scheme == 'https' || $scheme == 'data') {
    // Check for HTTP and data URI-encoded URLs so that we don't have to
    // implement getExternalUrl() for the HTTP and data schemes.
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    return $uri;
  }
  else {
    // Attempt to return an external URL using the appropriate wrapper.
    if ($wrapper = file_stream_wrapper_get_instance_by_uri($uri)) {
      return $wrapper->getExternalUrl();
    }
    else {
      return FALSE;
    }
  }
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}

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/**
 * Transforms an absolute URL of a local file to a relative URL.
 *
 * May be useful to prevent problems on multisite set-ups and prevent mixed
 * content errors when using HTTPS + HTTP.
 *
 * @param string $file_url
 *   A file URL of a local file as generated by file_create_url().
 *
 * @return string
 *   If the file URL indeed pointed to a local file and was indeed absolute,
 *   then the transformed, relative URL to the local file. Otherwise: the
 *   original value of $file_url.
 *
 * @see file_create_url()
 */
function file_url_transform_relative($file_url) {
  // Unfortunately, we pretty much have to duplicate Symfony's
  // Request::getHttpHost() method because Request::getPort() may return NULL
  // instead of a port number.
  $http_host = '';
  $request = \Drupal::request();
  $host = $request->getHost();
  $scheme = $request->getScheme();
  $port = $request->getPort() ?: 80;
  if (('http' == $scheme && $port == 80) || ('https' == $scheme && $port == 443)) {
    $http_host = $host;
  }
  else {
    $http_host = $host . ':' . $port;
  }

  return preg_replace('|^https?://' . $http_host . '|', '', $file_url);
}

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/**
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 * Checks that the directory exists and is writable.
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 *
 * Directories need to have execute permissions to be considered a directory by
 * FTP servers, etc.
 *
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 * @param $directory
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 *   A string reference containing the name of a directory path or URI. A
 *   trailing slash will be trimmed from a path.
 * @param $options
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 *   A bitmask to indicate if the directory should be created if it does
 *   not exist (FILE_CREATE_DIRECTORY) or made writable if it is read-only
 *   (FILE_MODIFY_PERMISSIONS).
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 *
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 * @return
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 *   TRUE if the directory exists (or was created) and is writable. FALSE
 *   otherwise.
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 */
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function file_prepare_directory(&$directory, $options = FILE_MODIFY_PERMISSIONS) {
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  if (!file_stream_wrapper_valid_scheme(file_uri_scheme($directory))) {
    // Only trim if we're not dealing with a stream.
    $directory = rtrim($directory, '/\\');
  }
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  // Check if directory exists.
  if (!is_dir($directory)) {
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    // Let mkdir() recursively create directories and use the default directory
    // permissions.
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    if ($options & FILE_CREATE_DIRECTORY) {
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      return @drupal_mkdir($directory, NULL, TRUE);
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    }
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    return FALSE;
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  }
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  // The directory exists, so check to see if it is writable.
  $writable = is_writable($directory);
  if (!$writable && ($options & FILE_MODIFY_PERMISSIONS)) {
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    return drupal_chmod($directory);
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  }

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  return $writable;
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}

/**
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 * Creates a .htaccess file in each Drupal files directory if it is missing.
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 */
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function file_ensure_htaccess() {
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  file_save_htaccess('public://', FALSE);
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  $private_path = PrivateStream::basePath();
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  if (!empty($private_path)) {
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    file_save_htaccess('private://', TRUE);
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  }
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  file_save_htaccess('temporary://', TRUE);
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  file_save_htaccess(config_get_config_directory(), TRUE);
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  file_save_htaccess(config_get_config_directory(CONFIG_STAGING_DIRECTORY), TRUE);
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}

/**
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 * Creates a .htaccess file in the given directory.
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 *
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 * @param string $directory
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 *   The directory.
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 * @param bool $private
 *   (Optional) FALSE indicates that $directory should be a web-accessible
 *   directory. Defaults to TRUE which indicates a private directory.
 * @param bool $force_overwrite
 *   (Optional) Set to TRUE to attempt to overwrite the existing .htaccess file
 *   if one is already present. Defaults to FALSE.
 */
function file_save_htaccess($directory, $private = TRUE, $force_overwrite = FALSE) {
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  if (file_uri_scheme($directory)) {
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    $htaccess_path = file_stream_wrapper_uri_normalize($directory . '/.htaccess');
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  }
  else {
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    $directory = rtrim($directory, '/\\');
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    $htaccess_path = $directory . '/.htaccess';
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  }
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  if (file_exists($htaccess_path) && !$force_overwrite) {
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    // Short circuit if the .htaccess file already exists.
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    return TRUE;
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  }
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  $htaccess_lines = FileStorage::htaccessLines($private);
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  // Write the .htaccess file.
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  if (file_exists($directory) && is_writable($directory) && file_put_contents($htaccess_path, $htaccess_lines)) {
    return drupal_chmod($htaccess_path, 0444);
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  }
  else {
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    $variables = array('%directory' => $directory, '!htaccess' => '<br />' . nl2br(SafeMarkup::checkPlain($htaccess_lines)));
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    \Drupal::logger('security')->error("Security warning: Couldn't write .htaccess file. Please create a .htaccess file in your %directory directory which contains the following lines: <code>!htaccess</code>", $variables);
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    return FALSE;
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  }
}

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/**
 * Returns the standard .htaccess lines that Drupal writes to file directories.
 *
 * @param bool $private
 *   (Optional) Set to FALSE to return the .htaccess lines for a web-accessible
 *   public directory. The default is TRUE, which returns the .htaccess lines
 *   for a private directory that should not be web-accessible.
 *
 * @return string
 *   The desired contents of the .htaccess file.
 *
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 * @deprecated in Drupal 8.0.x-dev and will be removed before Drupal 9.0.0.
 *   Use \Drupal\Component\PhpStorage\FileStorage::htaccessLines().
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 */
function file_htaccess_lines($private = TRUE) {
  return FileStorage::htaccessLines($private);
}

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/**
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 * Determines whether the URI has a valid scheme for file API operations.
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 *
 * There must be a scheme and it must be a Drupal-provided scheme like
 * 'public', 'private', 'temporary', or an extension provided with
 * hook_stream_wrappers().
 *
 * @param $uri
 *   The URI to be tested.
 *
 * @return
 *   TRUE if the URI is allowed.
 */
function file_valid_uri($uri) {
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  // Assert that the URI has an allowed scheme. Bare paths are not allowed.
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  $uri_scheme = file_uri_scheme($uri);
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  if (!file_stream_wrapper_valid_scheme($uri_scheme)) {
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    return FALSE;
  }
  return TRUE;
}

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/**
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 * Copies a file to a new location without invoking the file API.
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 *
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 * This is a powerful function that in many ways performs like an advanced
 * version of copy().
 * - Checks if $source and $destination are valid and readable/writable.
 * - If file already exists in $destination either the call will error out,
 *   replace the file or rename the file based on the $replace parameter.
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 * - If the $source and $destination are equal, the behavior depends on the
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 *   $replace parameter. FILE_EXISTS_REPLACE will error out. FILE_EXISTS_RENAME
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 *   will rename the file until the $destination is unique.
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 * - Provides a fallback using realpaths if the move fails using stream
 *   wrappers. This can occur because PHP's copy() function does not properly
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 *   support streams if open_basedir is enabled. See
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 *   https://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=60456
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 *
 * @param $source
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 *   A string specifying the filepath or URI of the source file.
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 * @param $destination
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 *   A URI containing the destination that $source should be copied to. The
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 *   URI may be a bare filepath (without a scheme). If this value is omitted,
 *   Drupal's default files scheme will be used, usually "public://".
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 * @param $replace
 *   Replace behavior when the destination file already exists:
 *   - FILE_EXISTS_REPLACE - Replace the existing file.
 *   - FILE_EXISTS_RENAME - Append _{incrementing number} until the filename is
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 *       unique.
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 *   - FILE_EXISTS_ERROR - Do nothing and return FALSE.
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 *
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 * @return
 *   The path to the new file, or FALSE in the event of an error.
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 *
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 * @see file_copy()
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 */
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function file_unmanaged_copy($source, $destination = NULL, $replace = FILE_EXISTS_RENAME) {
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  $original_source = $source;
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  $logger = \Drupal::logger('file');
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  // Assert that the source file actually exists.
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  if (!file_exists($source)) {
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    // @todo Replace drupal_set_message() calls with exceptions instead.
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    drupal_set_message(t('The specified file %file could not be copied because no file by that name exists. Please check that you supplied the correct filename.', array('%file' => $original_source)), 'error');
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    if (($realpath = drupal_realpath($original_source)) !== FALSE) {
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      $logger->notice('File %file (%realpath) could not be copied because it does not exist.', array('%file' => $original_source, '%realpath' => $realpath));
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    }
    else {
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      $logger->notice('File %file could not be copied because it does not exist.', array('%file' => $original_source));
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    }
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    return FALSE;
  }
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  // Build a destination URI if necessary.
  if (!isset($destination)) {
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    $destination = file_build_uri(drupal_basename($source));
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  }
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  // Prepare the destination directory.
  if (file_prepare_directory($destination)) {
    // The destination is already a directory, so append the source basename.
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    $destination = file_stream_wrapper_uri_normalize($destination . '/' . drupal_basename($source));
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  }
  else {
    // Perhaps $destination is a dir/file?
    $dirname = drupal_dirname($destination);
    if (!file_prepare_directory($dirname)) {
      // The destination is not valid.
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      $logger->notice('File %file could not be copied because the destination directory %destination is not configured correctly.', array('%file' => $original_source, '%destination' => $dirname));
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      drupal_set_message(t('The specified file %file could not be copied because the destination directory is not properly configured. This may be caused by a problem with file or directory permissions. More information is available in the system log.', array('%file' => $original_source)), 'error');
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      return FALSE;
    }
  }
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  // Determine whether we can perform this operation based on overwrite rules.
  $destination = file_destination($destination, $replace);
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  if ($destination === FALSE) {
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    drupal_set_message(t('The file %file could not be copied because a file by that name already exists in the destination directory.', array('%file' => $original_source)), 'error');
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    $logger->notice('File %file could not be copied because a file by that name already exists in the destination directory (%destination)', array('%file' => $original_source, '%destination' => $destination));
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    return FALSE;
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  }
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  // Assert that the source and destination filenames are not the same.
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  $real_source = drupal_realpath($source);
  $real_destination = drupal_realpath($destination);
  if ($source == $destination || ($real_source !== FALSE) && ($real_source == $real_destination)) {
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    drupal_set_message(t('The specified file %file was not copied because it would overwrite itself.', array('%file' => $source)), 'error');
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    $logger->notice('File %file could not be copied because it would overwrite itself.', array('%file' => $source));
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    return FALSE;
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  }
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  // Make sure the .htaccess files are present.
  file_ensure_htaccess();
  // Perform the copy operation.
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  if (!@copy($source, $destination)) {
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    // If the copy failed and realpaths exist, retry the operation using them
    // instead.
    if ($real_source === FALSE || $real_destination === FALSE || !@copy($real_source, $real_destination)) {
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      $logger->error('The specified file %file could not be copied to %destination.', array('%file' => $source, '%destination' => $destination));
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      return FALSE;
    }
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  }
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  // Set the permissions on the new file.
  drupal_chmod($destination);
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  return $destination;
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}

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/**
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 * Constructs a URI to Drupal's default files location given a relative path.
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 */
function file_build_uri($path) {
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  $uri = file_default_scheme() . '://' . $path;
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  return file_stream_wrapper_uri_normalize($uri);
}

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/**
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 * Determines the destination path for a file.
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 *
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 * @param $destination
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 *   A string specifying the desired final URI or filepath.
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 * @param $replace
 *   Replace behavior when the destination file already exists.
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 *   - FILE_EXISTS_REPLACE - Replace the existing file.
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 *   - FILE_EXISTS_RENAME - Append _{incrementing number} until the filename is
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 *       unique.
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 *   - FILE_EXISTS_ERROR - Do nothing and return FALSE.
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 *
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 * @return
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 *   The destination filepath, or FALSE if the file already exists
 *   and FILE_EXISTS_ERROR is specified.
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 */
function file_destination($destination, $replace) {
  if (file_exists($destination)) {
    switch ($replace) {
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      case FILE_EXISTS_REPLACE:
        // Do nothing here, we want to overwrite the existing file.
        break;

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      case FILE_EXISTS_RENAME:
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        $basename = drupal_basename($destination);
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        $directory = drupal_dirname($destination);
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        $destination = file_create_filename($basename, $directory);
        break;

      case FILE_EXISTS_ERROR:
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        // Error reporting handled by calling function.
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        return FALSE;
    }
  }
  return $destination;
}

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/**
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 * Moves a file to a new location without database changes or hook invocation.
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 *
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 * @param $source
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 *   A string specifying the filepath or URI of the original file.
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 * @param $destination
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 *   A string containing the destination that $source should be moved to.
 *   This must be a stream wrapper URI. If this value is omitted, Drupal's
 *   default files scheme will be used, usually "public://".
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 * @param $replace
 *   Replace behavior when the destination file already exists:
 *   - FILE_EXISTS_REPLACE - Replace the existing file.
 *   - FILE_EXISTS_RENAME - Append _{incrementing number} until the filename is
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 *       unique.
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 *   - FILE_EXISTS_ERROR - Do nothing and return FALSE.
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 *
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 * @return
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 *   The URI of the moved file, or FALSE in the event of an error.
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 *
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 * @see file_move()
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 */
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function file_unmanaged_move($source, $destination = NULL, $replace = FILE_EXISTS_RENAME) {
  $filepath = file_unmanaged_copy($source, $destination, $replace);
  if ($filepath == FALSE || file_unmanaged_delete($source) == FALSE) {
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    return FALSE;
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  }
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  return $filepath;
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}

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/**
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 * Modifies a filename as needed for security purposes.
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 *
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 * Munging a file name prevents unknown file extensions from masking exploit
 * files. When web servers such as Apache decide how to process a URL request,
 * they use the file extension. If the extension is not recognized, Apache
 * skips that extension and uses the previous file extension. For example, if
 * the file being requested is exploit.php.pps, and Apache does not recognize
 * the '.pps' extension, it treats the file as PHP and executes it. To make
 * this file name safe for Apache and prevent it from executing as PHP, the
 * .php extension is "munged" into .php_, making the safe file name
 * exploit.php_.pps.
 *
 * Specifically, this function adds an underscore to all extensions that are
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 * between 2 and 5 characters in length, internal to the file name, and not
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 * included in $extensions.
 *
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 * Function behavior is also controlled by the configuration
 * 'system.file:allow_insecure_uploads'. If it evaluates to TRUE, no alterations
 * will be made, if it evaluates to FALSE, the filename is 'munged'. *
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 * @param $filename
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 *   File name to modify.
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 * @param $extensions
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 *   A space-separated list of extensions that should not be altered.
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 * @param $alerts
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 *   If TRUE, drupal_set_message() will be called to display a message if the
 *   file name was changed.
 *
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 * @return string
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 *   The potentially modified $filename.
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 */
function file_munge_filename($filename, $extensions, $alerts = TRUE) {
  $original = $filename;

  // Allow potentially insecure uploads for very savvy users and admin
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  if (!\Drupal::config('system.file')->get('allow_insecure_uploads')) {
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    // Remove any null bytes. See http://php.net/manual/en/security.filesystem.nullbytes.php
    $filename = str_replace(chr(0), '', $filename);

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    $whitelist = array_unique(explode(' ', strtolower(trim($extensions))));
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    // Split the filename up by periods. The first part becomes the basename
    // the last part the final extension.
    $filename_parts = explode('.', $filename);
    $new_filename = array_shift($filename_parts); // Remove file basename.
    $final_extension = array_pop($filename_parts); // Remove final extension.

    // Loop through the middle parts of the name and add an underscore to the
    // end of each section that could be a file extension but isn't in the list
    // of allowed extensions.
    foreach ($filename_parts as $filename_part) {
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      $new_filename .= '.' . $filename_part;
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      if (!in_array(strtolower($filename_part), $whitelist) && preg_match("/^[a-zA-Z]{2,5}\d?$/", $filename_part)) {
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        $new_filename .= '_';
      }
    }
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    $filename = $new_filename . '.' . $final_extension;
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    if ($alerts && $original != $filename) {
      drupal_set_message(t('For security reasons, your upload has been renamed to %filename.', array('%filename' => $filename)));
    }
  }

  return $filename;
}

/**
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 * Undoes the effect of file_munge_filename().
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 *
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 * @param $filename
 *   String with the filename to be unmunged.
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 *
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 * @return
 *   An unmunged filename string.
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 */
function file_unmunge_filename($filename) {
  return str_replace('_.', '.', $filename);
}

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/**
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 * Creates a full file path from a directory and filename.
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 *
 * If a file with the specified name already exists, an alternative will be
 * used.
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 *
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 * @param $basename
 *   String filename
 * @param $directory
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 *   String containing the directory or parent URI.
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 *
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 * @return
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 *   File path consisting of $directory and a unique filename based off
 *   of $basename.
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 */
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function file_create_filename($basename, $directory) {
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  // Strip control characters (ASCII value < 32). Though these are allowed in
  // some filesystems, not many applications handle them well.
  $basename = preg_replace('/[\x00-\x1F]/u', '_', $basename);
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  if (substr(PHP_OS, 0, 3) == 'WIN') {
    // These characters are not allowed in Windows filenames
    $basename = str_replace(array(':', '*', '?', '"', '<', '>', '|'), '_', $basename);
  }
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  // A URI or path may already have a trailing slash or look like "public://".
  if (substr($directory, -1) == '/') {
    $separator = '';
  }
  else {
    $separator = '/';
  }

  $destination = $directory . $separator . $basename;
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  if (file_exists($destination)) {
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    // Destination file already exists, generate an alternative.
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    $pos = strrpos($basename, '.');
    if ($pos !== FALSE) {
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      $name = substr($basename, 0, $pos);
      $ext = substr($basename, $pos);
    }
    else {
      $name = $basename;
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      $ext = '';
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    }

    $counter = 0;
    do {
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      $destination = $directory . $separator . $name . '_' . $counter++ . $ext;
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    } while (file_exists($destination));
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  }

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  return $destination;
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}

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/**
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 * Deletes a file and its database record.
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 *
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 * Instead of directly deleting a file, it is strongly recommended to delete
 * file usages instead. That will automatically mark the file as temporary and
 * remove it during cleanup.
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 *
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 * @param $fid
 *   The file id.
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 *
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 * @see file_unmanaged_delete()
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 * @see \Drupal\file\FileUsage\FileUsageBase::delete()
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 */
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function file_delete($fid) {
  return file_delete_multiple(array($fid));
}
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/**
 * Deletes files.
 *
 * Instead of directly deleting a file, it is strongly recommended to delete
 * file usages instead. That will automatically mark the file as temporary and
 * remove it during cleanup.
 *
 * @param $fid
 *   The file id.
 *
 * @see file_unmanaged_delete()
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 * @see \Drupal\file\FileUsage\FileUsageBase::delete()
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 */
function file_delete_multiple(array $fids) {
  entity_delete_multiple('file', $fids);
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}

/**
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 * Deletes a file without database changes or hook invocations.
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 *
 * This function should be used when the file to be deleted does not have an
 * entry recorded in the files table.
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 *
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 * @param $path
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 *   A string containing a file path or (streamwrapper) URI.
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 *
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 * @return
 *   TRUE for success or path does not exist, or FALSE in the event of an
 *   error.
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 *
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 * @see file_delete()
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 * @see file_unmanaged_delete_recursive()
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 */
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function file_unmanaged_delete($path) {
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  if (is_file($path)) {
    return drupal_unlink($path);
  }
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  $logger = \Drupal::logger('file');
882
  if (is_dir($path)) {
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    $logger->error('%path is a directory and cannot be removed using file_unmanaged_delete().', array('%path' => $path));
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    return FALSE;
  }
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  // Return TRUE for non-existent file, but log that nothing was actually
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  // deleted, as the current state is the intended result.
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  if (!file_exists($path)) {
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    $logger->notice('The file %path was not deleted because it does not exist.', array('%path' => $path));
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    return TRUE;
  }
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  // We cannot handle anything other than files and directories. Log an error
  // for everything else (sockets, symbolic links, etc).
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  $logger->error('The file %path is not of a recognized type so it was not deleted.', array('%path' => $path));
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  return FALSE;
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}

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/**
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 * Deletes all files and directories in the specified filepath recursively.
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 *
 * If the specified path is a directory then the function will call itself
 * recursively to process the contents. Once the contents have been removed the
 * directory will also be removed.
 *
 * If the specified path is a file then it will be passed to
 * file_unmanaged_delete().
 *
 * Note that this only deletes visible files with write permission.
 *
 * @param $path
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 *   A string containing either an URI or a file or directory path.
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 * @param $callback
 *   (optional) Callback function to run on each file prior to deleting it and
 *   on each directory prior to traversing it. For example, can be used to
 *   modify permissions.
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 *
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 * @return
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 *   TRUE for success or if path does not exist, FALSE in the event of an
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 *   error.
 *
 * @see file_unmanaged_delete()
 */
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function file_unmanaged_delete_recursive($path, $callback = NULL) {
  if (isset($callback)) {
    call_user_func($callback, $path);
  }
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  if (is_dir($path)) {
    $dir = dir($path);
    while (($entry = $dir->read()) !== FALSE) {
      if ($entry == '.' || $entry == '..') {
        continue;
      }
      $entry_path = $path . '/' . $entry;
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      file_unmanaged_delete_recursive($entry_path, $callback);
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    }
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    $dir->close();
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    return drupal_rmdir($path);
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  }
  return file_unmanaged_delete($path);
}