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<?php
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// $Id$
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/**
 * @file
 * Common functions that many Drupal modules will need to reference.
 *
 * The functions that are critical and need to be available even when serving
 * a cached page are instead located in bootstrap.inc.
 */

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/**
 * @defgroup php_wrappers PHP wrapper functions
 * @{
 * Functions that are wrappers or custom implementations of PHP functions.
 *
 * Certain PHP functions should not be used in Drupal. Instead, Drupal's
 * replacement functions should be used.
 *
 * For example, for improved or more secure UTF8-handling, or RFC-compliant
 * handling of URLs in Drupal.
 *
 * For ease of use and memorizing, all these wrapper functions use the same name
 * as the original PHP function, but prefixed with "drupal_". Beware, however,
 * that not all wrapper functions support the same arguments as the original
 * functions.
 *
 * You should always use these wrapper functions in your code.
 *
 * Wrong:
 * @code
 *   $my_substring = substr($original_string, 0, 5);
 * @endcode
 *
 * Correct:
 * @code
 *   $my_substring = drupal_substr($original_string, 0, 5);
 * @endcode
 *
 * @} End of "defgroup php_wrappers".
 */

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/**
 * Error reporting level: display no errors.
 */
define('ERROR_REPORTING_HIDE', 0);

/**
 * Error reporting level: display errors and warnings.
 */
define('ERROR_REPORTING_DISPLAY_SOME', 1);

/**
 * Error reporting level: display all messages.
 */
define('ERROR_REPORTING_DISPLAY_ALL', 2);

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/**
 * Return status for saving which involved creating a new item.
 */
define('SAVED_NEW', 1);

/**
 * Return status for saving which involved an update to an existing item.
 */
define('SAVED_UPDATED', 2);

/**
 * Return status for saving which deleted an existing item.
 */
define('SAVED_DELETED', 3);

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/**
 * The default weight of system CSS files added to the page.
 */
define('CSS_SYSTEM', -100);

/**
 * The default weight of CSS files added to the page.
 */
define('CSS_DEFAULT', 0);

/**
 * The default weight of theme CSS files added to the page.
 */
define('CSS_THEME', 100);

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/**
 * The weight of JavaScript libraries, settings or jQuery plugins being
 * added to the page.
 */
define('JS_LIBRARY', -100);

/**
 * The default weight of JavaScript being added to the page.
 */
define('JS_DEFAULT', 0);

/**
 * The weight of theme JavaScript code being added to the page.
 */
define('JS_THEME', 100);

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/**
 * Error code indicating that the request made by drupal_http_request() exceeded
 * the specified timeout.
 */
define('HTTP_REQUEST_TIMEOUT', 1);

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/**
 * Constants defining cache granularity for blocks and renderable arrays.
 *
 * Modules specify the caching patterns for their blocks using binary
 * combinations of these constants in their hook_block_info():
 *   $block[delta]['cache'] = DRUPAL_CACHE_PER_ROLE | DRUPAL_CACHE_PER_PAGE;
 * DRUPAL_CACHE_PER_ROLE is used as a default when no caching pattern is
 * specified. Use DRUPAL_CACHE_CUSTOM to disable standard block cache and
 * implement
 *
 * The block cache is cleared in cache_clear_all(), and uses the same clearing
 * policy than page cache (node, comment, user, taxonomy added or updated...).
 * Blocks requiring more fine-grained clearing might consider disabling the
 * built-in block cache (DRUPAL_NO_CACHE) and roll their own.
 *
 * Note that user 1 is excluded from block caching.
 */

/**
 * The block should not get cached. This setting should be used:
 * - for simple blocks (notably those that do not perform any db query),
 * where querying the db cache would be more expensive than directly generating
 * the content.
 * - for blocks that change too frequently.
 */
define('DRUPAL_NO_CACHE', -1);

/**
 * The block is handling its own caching in its hook_block_view(). From the
 * perspective of the block cache system, this is equivalent to DRUPAL_NO_CACHE.
 * Useful when time based expiration is needed or a site uses a node access
 * which invalidates standard block cache.
 */
define('DRUPAL_CACHE_CUSTOM', -2);

/**
 * The block or element can change depending on the roles the user viewing the
 * page belongs to. This is the default setting for blocks, used when the block
 * does not specify anything.
 */
define('DRUPAL_CACHE_PER_ROLE', 0x0001);

/**
 * The block or element can change depending on the user viewing the page.
 * This setting can be resource-consuming for sites with large number of users,
 * and thus should only be used when DRUPAL_CACHE_PER_ROLE is not sufficient.
 */
define('DRUPAL_CACHE_PER_USER', 0x0002);

/**
 * The block or element can change depending on the page being viewed.
 */
define('DRUPAL_CACHE_PER_PAGE', 0x0004);

/**
 * The block or element is the same for every user on every page where it is visible.
 */
define('DRUPAL_CACHE_GLOBAL', 0x0008);

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/**
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 * Add content to a specified region.
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 *
 * @param $region
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 *   Page region the content is added to.
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 * @param $data
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 *   Content to be added.
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 */
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function drupal_add_region_content($region = NULL, $data = NULL) {
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  static $content = array();

  if (!is_null($region) && !is_null($data)) {
    $content[$region][] = $data;
  }
  return $content;
}

/**
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 * Get assigned content for a given region.
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 *
 * @param $region
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 *   A specified region to fetch content for. If NULL, all regions will be
 *   returned.
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 * @param $delimiter
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 *   Content to be inserted between imploded array elements.
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 */
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function drupal_get_region_content($region = NULL, $delimiter = ' ') {
  $content = drupal_add_region_content();
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  if (isset($region)) {
    if (isset($content[$region]) && is_array($content[$region])) {
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      return implode($delimiter, $content[$region]);
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    }
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  }
  else {
    foreach (array_keys($content) as $region) {
      if (is_array($content[$region])) {
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        $content[$region] = implode($delimiter, $content[$region]);
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      }
    }
    return $content;
  }
}

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/**
 * Get the name of the currently active install profile.
 *
 * When this function is called during Drupal's initial installation process,
 * the name of the profile that's about to be installed is stored in the global
 * installation state. At all other times, the standard Drupal systems variable
 * table contains the name of the current profile, and we can call variable_get()
 * to determine what one is active.
 *
 * @return $profile
 *   The name of the install profile.
 */
function drupal_get_profile() {
  global $install_state;

  if (isset($install_state['parameters']['profile'])) {
    $profile = $install_state['parameters']['profile'];
  }
  else {
    $profile = variable_get('install_profile', 'default');
  }

  return $profile;
}


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/**
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 * Set the breadcrumb trail for the current page.
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 *
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 * @param $breadcrumb
 *   Array of links, starting with "home" and proceeding up to but not including
 *   the current page.
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 */
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function drupal_set_breadcrumb($breadcrumb = NULL) {
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  $stored_breadcrumb = &drupal_static(__FUNCTION__);
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  if (!is_null($breadcrumb)) {
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    $stored_breadcrumb = $breadcrumb;
  }
  return $stored_breadcrumb;
}

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/**
 * Get the breadcrumb trail for the current page.
 */
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function drupal_get_breadcrumb() {
  $breadcrumb = drupal_set_breadcrumb();

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  if (is_null($breadcrumb)) {
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    $breadcrumb = menu_get_active_breadcrumb();
  }

  return $breadcrumb;
}

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/**
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 * Return a string containing RDF namespaces for the <html> tag of an XHTML
 * page.
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 */
function drupal_get_rdf_namespaces() {
  // Serialize the RDF namespaces used in RDFa annotation.
  $xml_rdf_namespaces = array();
  foreach (module_invoke_all('rdf_namespaces') as $prefix => $uri) {
    $xml_rdf_namespaces[] = 'xmlns:' . $prefix . '="' . $uri . '"';
  }
  return implode("\n  ", $xml_rdf_namespaces);
}

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/**
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 * Add output to the head tag of the HTML page.
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 *
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 * This function can be called as long the headers aren't sent.
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 */
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function drupal_add_html_head($data = NULL) {
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  $stored_head = &drupal_static(__FUNCTION__, '');
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  if (!is_null($data)) {
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    $stored_head .= $data . "\n";
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  }
  return $stored_head;
}

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/**
 * Retrieve output to be displayed in the head tag of the HTML page.
 */
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function drupal_get_html_head() {
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  $output = "<meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=utf-8\" />\n";
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  return $output . drupal_add_html_head();
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}

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/**
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 * Reset the static variable which holds the aliases mapped for this request.
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 */
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function drupal_clear_path_cache() {
  drupal_lookup_path('wipe');
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}
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/**
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 * Add a feed URL for the current page.
 *
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 * This function can be called as long the HTML header hasn't been sent.
 *
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 * @param $url
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 *   A url for the feed.
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 * @param $title
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 *   The title of the feed.
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 */
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function drupal_add_feed($url = NULL, $title = '') {
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  $stored_feed_links = &drupal_static(__FUNCTION__, array());
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  if (!is_null($url) && !isset($stored_feed_links[$url])) {
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    $stored_feed_links[$url] = theme('feed_icon', array('url' => $url, 'title' => $title));
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    drupal_add_link(array('rel' => 'alternate',
                          'type' => 'application/rss+xml',
                          'title' => $title,
                          'href' => $url));
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  }
  return $stored_feed_links;
}

/**
 * Get the feed URLs for the current page.
 *
 * @param $delimiter
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 *   A delimiter to split feeds by.
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 */
function drupal_get_feeds($delimiter = "\n") {
  $feeds = drupal_add_feed();
  return implode($feeds, $delimiter);
}

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/**
 * @name HTTP handling
 * @{
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 * Functions to properly handle HTTP responses.
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 */

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/**
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 * Process a URL query parameter array to remove unwanted elements.
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 *
 * @param $query
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 *   (optional) An array to be processed. Defaults to $_GET.
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 * @param $exclude
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 *   (optional) A list of $query array keys to remove. Use "parent[child]" to
 *   exclude nested items. Defaults to array('q').
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 * @param $parent
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 *   Internal use only. Used to build the $query array key for nested items.
 *
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 * @return
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 *   An array containing query parameters, which can be used for url().
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 */
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function drupal_get_query_parameters(array $query = NULL, array $exclude = array('q'), $parent = '') {
  // Set defaults, if none given.
  if (!isset($query)) {
    $query = $_GET;
  }
  // If $exclude is empty, there is nothing to filter.
  if (empty($exclude)) {
    return $query;
  }
  elseif (!$parent) {
    $exclude = array_flip($exclude);
  }
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  $params = array();
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  foreach ($query as $key => $value) {
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    $string_key = ($parent ? $parent . '[' . $key . ']' : $key);
    if (isset($exclude[$string_key])) {
      continue;
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    }

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    if (is_array($value)) {
      $params[$key] = drupal_get_query_parameters($value, $exclude, $string_key);
    }
    else {
      $params[$key] = $value;
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    }
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  }

  return $params;
}

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/**
 * Split an URL-encoded query string into an array.
 *
 * @param $query
 *   The query string to split.
 *
 * @return
 *   An array of url decoded couples $param_name => $value.
 */
function drupal_get_query_array($query) {
  $result = array();
  if (!empty($query)) {
    foreach (explode('&', $query) as $param) {
      $param = explode('=', $param);
      $result[$param[0]] = isset($param[1]) ? rawurldecode($param[1]) : '';
    }
  }
  return $result;
}

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/**
 * Parse an array into a valid, rawurlencoded query string.
 *
 * This differs from http_build_query() as we need to rawurlencode() (instead of
 * urlencode()) all query parameters.
 *
 * @param $query
 *   The query parameter array to be processed, e.g. $_GET.
 * @param $parent
 *   Internal use only. Used to build the $query array key for nested items.
 *
 * @return
 *   A rawurlencoded string which can be used as or appended to the URL query
 *   string.
 *
 * @see drupal_get_query_parameters()
 * @ingroup php_wrappers
 */
function drupal_http_build_query(array $query, $parent = '') {
  $params = array();

  foreach ($query as $key => $value) {
    $key = ($parent ? $parent . '[' . rawurlencode($key) . ']' : rawurlencode($key));
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    // Recurse into children.
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    if (is_array($value)) {
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      $params[] = drupal_http_build_query($value, $key);
    }
    // If a query parameter value is NULL, only append its key.
    elseif (!isset($value)) {
      $params[] = $key;
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    }
    else {
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      // For better readability of paths in query strings, we decode slashes.
      // @see drupal_encode_path()
      $params[] = $key . '=' . str_replace('%2F', '/', rawurlencode($value));
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    }
  }

  return implode('&', $params);
}

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/**
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 * Prepare a 'destination' URL query parameter for use in combination with drupal_goto().
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 *
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 * Used to direct the user back to the referring page after completing a form.
 * By default the current URL is returned. If a destination exists in the
 * previous request, that destination is returned. As such, a destination can
 * persist across multiple pages.
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 *
 * @see drupal_goto()
 */
function drupal_get_destination() {
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  $destination = &drupal_static(__FUNCTION__);

  if (isset($destination)) {
    return $destination;
  }

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  if (isset($_GET['destination'])) {
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    $destination = array('destination' => $_GET['destination']);
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  }
  else {
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    $path = $_GET['q'];
    $query = drupal_http_build_query(drupal_get_query_parameters());
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    if ($query != '') {
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      $path .= '?' . $query;
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    }
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    $destination = array('destination' => $path);
  }
  return $destination;
}

/**
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 * Wrapper around parse_url() to parse a system URL string into an associative array, suitable for url().
 *
 * This function should only be used for URLs that have been generated by the
 * system, resp. url(). It should not be used for URLs that come from external
 * sources, or URLs that link to external resources.
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 *
 * The returned array contains a 'path' that may be passed separately to url().
 * For example:
 * @code
 *   $options = drupal_parse_url($_GET['destination']);
 *   $my_url = url($options['path'], $options);
 *   $my_link = l('Example link', $options['path'], $options);
 * @endcode
 *
 * This is required, because url() does not support relative URLs containing a
 * query string or fragment in its $path argument. Instead, any query string
 * needs to be parsed into an associative query parameter array in
 * $options['query'] and the fragment into $options['fragment'].
 *
 * @param $url
 *   The URL string to parse, f.e. $_GET['destination'].
 *
 * @return
 *   An associative array containing the keys:
 *   - 'path': The path of the URL. If the given $url is external, this includes
 *     the scheme and host.
 *   - 'query': An array of query parameters of $url, if existent.
 *   - 'fragment': The fragment of $url, if existent.
 *
 * @see url()
 * @see drupal_goto()
 * @ingroup php_wrappers
 */
function drupal_parse_url($url) {
  $options = array(
    'path' => NULL,
    'query' => array(),
    'fragment' => '',
  );

  // External URLs: not using parse_url() here, so we do not have to rebuild
  // the scheme, host, and path without having any use for it.
  if (strpos($url, '://') !== FALSE) {
    // Split off everything before the query string into 'path'.
    $parts = explode('?', $url);
    $options['path'] = $parts[0];
    // If there is a query string, transform it into keyed query parameters.
    if (isset($parts[1])) {
      $query_parts = explode('#', $parts[1]);
      parse_str($query_parts[0], $options['query']);
      // Take over the fragment, if there is any.
      if (isset($query_parts[1])) {
        $options['fragment'] = $query_parts[1];
      }
    }
  }
  // Internal URLs.
  else {
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    // parse_url() does not support relative URLs, so make it absolute. E.g. the
    // relative URL "foo/bar:1" isn't properly parsed.
    $parts = parse_url('http://example.com/' . $url);
    // Strip the leading slash that was just added.
    $options['path'] = substr($parts['path'], 1);
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    if (isset($parts['query'])) {
      parse_str($parts['query'], $options['query']);
    }
    if (isset($parts['fragment'])) {
      $options['fragment'] = $parts['fragment'];
    }
  }
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  // The 'q' parameter contains the path of the current page if clean URLs are
  // disabled. It overrides the 'path' of the URL when present, even if clean
  // URLs are enabled, due to how Apache rewriting rules work.
  if (isset($options['query']['q'])) {
    $options['path'] = $options['query']['q'];
    unset($options['query']['q']);
  }
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  return $options;
}

/**
 * Encode a path for usage in a URL.
 *
 * Wrapper around rawurlencode() which avoids Apache quirks. Should be used when
 * placing arbitrary data into the path component of an URL.
 *
 * Do not use this function to pass a path to url(). url() properly handles
 * and encodes paths internally.
 * This function should only be used on paths, not on query string arguments.
 * Otherwise, unwanted double encoding will occur.
 *
 * Notes:
 * - For esthetic reasons, we do not escape slashes. This also avoids a 'feature'
 *   in Apache where it 404s on any path containing '%2F'.
 * - mod_rewrite unescapes %-encoded ampersands, hashes, and slashes when clean
 *   URLs are used, which are interpreted as delimiters by PHP. These
 *   characters are double escaped so PHP will still see the encoded version.
 * - With clean URLs, Apache changes '//' to '/', so every second slash is
 *   double escaped.
 *
 * @param $path
 *   The URL path component to encode.
 */
function drupal_encode_path($path) {
  if (!empty($GLOBALS['conf']['clean_url'])) {
    return str_replace(array('%2F', '%26', '%23', '//'),
                       array('/', '%2526', '%2523', '/%252F'),
                       rawurlencode($path)
    );
  }
  else {
    return str_replace('%2F', '/', rawurlencode($path));
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  }
}

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/**
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 * Send the user to a different Drupal page.
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 *
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 * This issues an on-site HTTP redirect. The function makes sure the redirected
 * URL is formatted correctly.
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 *
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 * Usually the redirected URL is constructed from this function's input
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 * parameters. However you may override that behavior by setting a
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 * destination in either the $_REQUEST-array (i.e. by using
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 * the query string of an URI) This is used to direct the user back to
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 * the proper page after completing a form. For example, after editing
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 * a post on the 'admin/content'-page or after having logged on using the
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 * 'user login'-block in a sidebar. The function drupal_get_destination()
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 * can be used to help set the destination URL.
 *
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 * Drupal will ensure that messages set by drupal_set_message() and other
 * session data are written to the database before the user is redirected.
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 *
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 * This function ends the request; use it instead of a return in your menu
 * callback.
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 *
 * @param $path
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 *   A Drupal path or a full URL.
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 * @param $options
 *   An associative array of additional URL options to pass to url().
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 * @param $http_response_code
 *   Valid values for an actual "goto" as per RFC 2616 section 10.3 are:
 *   - 301 Moved Permanently (the recommended value for most redirects)
 *   - 302 Found (default in Drupal and PHP, sometimes used for spamming search
 *         engines)
 *   - 303 See Other
 *   - 304 Not Modified
 *   - 305 Use Proxy
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 *   - 307 Temporary Redirect (alternative to "503 Site Down for Maintenance")
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 *   Note: Other values are defined by RFC 2616, but are rarely used and poorly
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 *   supported.
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 *
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 * @see drupal_get_destination()
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 * @see url()
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 */
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function drupal_goto($path = '', array $options = array(), $http_response_code = 302) {
  // A destination in $_GET always overrides the function arguments.
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  if (isset($_GET['destination'])) {
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    $destination = drupal_parse_url(urldecode($_GET['destination']));
    $path = $destination['path'];
    $options['query'] = $destination['query'];
    $options['fragment'] = $destination['fragment'];
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  }

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  drupal_alter('drupal_goto', $path, $options, $http_response_code);

  // The 'Location' HTTP header must be absolute.
  $options['absolute'] = TRUE;
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  $url = url($path, $options);
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  header('Location: ' . $url, TRUE, $http_response_code);
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  // The "Location" header sends a redirect status code to the HTTP daemon. In
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  // some cases this can be wrong, so we make sure none of the code below the
  // drupal_goto() call gets executed upon redirection.
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  drupal_exit($url);
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}

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/**
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 * Deliver a "site is under maintenance" message to the browser.
 *
 * Page callback functions wanting to report a "site offline" message should
 * return MENU_SITE_OFFLINE instead of calling drupal_site_offline(). However,
 * functions that are invoked in contexts where that return value might not
 * bubble up to menu_execute_active_handler() should call drupal_site_offline().
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 */
function drupal_site_offline() {
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  drupal_deliver_page(MENU_SITE_OFFLINE);
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}

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/**
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 * Deliver a "page not found" error to the browser.
 *
 * Page callback functions wanting to report a "page not found" message should
 * return MENU_NOT_FOUND instead of calling drupal_not_found(). However,
 * functions that are invoked in contexts where that return value might not
 * bubble up to menu_execute_active_handler() should call drupal_not_found().
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 */
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function drupal_not_found() {
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  drupal_deliver_page(MENU_NOT_FOUND);
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}
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/**
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 * Deliver a "access denied" error to the browser.
 *
 * Page callback functions wanting to report an "access denied" message should
 * return MENU_ACCESS_DENIED instead of calling drupal_access_denied(). However,
 * functions that are invoked in contexts where that return value might not
 * bubble up to menu_execute_active_handler() should call drupal_access_denied().
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 */
function drupal_access_denied() {
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  drupal_deliver_page(MENU_ACCESS_DENIED);
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}

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/**
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 * Perform an HTTP request.
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 *
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 * This is a flexible and powerful HTTP client implementation. Correctly
 * handles GET, POST, PUT or any other HTTP requests. Handles redirects.
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 *
 * @param $url
 *   A string containing a fully qualified URI.
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 * @param $options
 *   (optional) An array which can have one or more of following keys:
 *   - headers
 *       An array containing request headers to send as name/value pairs.
 *   - method
 *       A string containing the request method. Defaults to 'GET'.
 *   - data
 *       A string containing the request body. Defaults to NULL.
 *   - max_redirects
 *       An integer representing how many times a redirect may be followed.
 *       Defaults to 3.
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 *   - timeout
 *       A float representing the maximum number of seconds the function call
 *       may take. The default is 30 seconds. If a timeout occurs, the error
 *       code is set to the HTTP_REQUEST_TIMEOUT constant.
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 * @return
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 *   An object which can have one or more of the following parameters:
 *   - request
 *       A string containing the request body that was sent.
 *   - code
 *       An integer containing the response status code, or the error code if
 *       an error occurred.
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 *   - protocol
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 *       The response protocol (e.g. HTTP/1.1 or HTTP/1.0).
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 *   - status_message
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 *       The status message from the response, if a response was received.
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 *   - redirect_code
 *       If redirected, an integer containing the initial response status code.
 *   - redirect_url
 *       If redirected, a string containing the redirection location.
 *   - error
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 *       If an error occurred, the error message. Otherwise not set.
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 *   - headers
 *       An array containing the response headers as name/value pairs.
 *   - data
 *       A string containing the response body that was received.
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 */
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function drupal_http_request($url, array $options = array()) {
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  global $db_prefix;
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  $result = new stdClass();
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  // Parse the URL and make sure we can handle the schema.
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  $uri = @parse_url($url);
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  if ($uri == FALSE) {
    $result->error = 'unable to parse URL';
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    $result->code = -1001;
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    return $result;
  }

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  if (!isset($uri['scheme'])) {
    $result->error = 'missing schema';
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    $result->code = -1002;
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    return $result;
  }

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  timer_start(__FUNCTION__);

  // Merge the default options.
  $options += array(
    'headers' => array(),
    'method' => 'GET',
    'data' => NULL,
    'max_redirects' => 3,
    'timeout' => 30,
  );

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  switch ($uri['scheme']) {
    case 'http':
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      $port = isset($uri['port']) ? $uri['port'] : 80;
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      $host = $uri['host'] . ($port != 80 ? ':' . $port : '');
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      $fp = @fsockopen($uri['host'], $port, $errno, $errstr, $options['timeout']);
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      break;
    case 'https':
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      // Note: Only works when PHP is compiled with OpenSSL support.
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      $port = isset($uri['port']) ? $uri['port'] : 443;
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      $host = $uri['host'] . ($port != 443 ? ':' . $port : '');
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      $fp = @fsockopen('ssl://' . $uri['host'], $port, $errno, $errstr, $options['timeout']);
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      break;
    default:
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      $result->error = 'invalid schema ' . $uri['scheme'];
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      $result->code = -1003;
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      return $result;
  }

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  // Make sure the socket opened properly.
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  if (!$fp) {
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    // When a network error occurs, we use a negative number so it does not
    // clash with the HTTP status codes.
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    $result->code = -$errno;
    $result->error = trim($errstr);
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    // Mark that this request failed. This will trigger a check of the web
    // server's ability to make outgoing HTTP requests the next time that
    // requirements checking is performed.
    // @see system_requirements()
    variable_set('drupal_http_request_fails', TRUE);

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    return $result;
  }

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  // Construct the path to act on.
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  $path = isset($uri['path']) ? $uri['path'] : '/';
  if (isset($uri['query'])) {
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    $path .= '?' . $uri['query'];
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  }

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  // Merge the default headers.
  $options['headers'] += array(
    'User-Agent' => 'Drupal (+http://drupal.org/)',
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  );

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  // RFC 2616: "non-standard ports MUST, default ports MAY be included".
  // We don't add the standard port to prevent from breaking rewrite rules
  // checking the host that do not take into account the port number.
  $options['headers']['Host'] = $host;

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  // Only add Content-Length if we actually have any content or if it is a POST
  // or PUT request. Some non-standard servers get confused by Content-Length in
  // at least HEAD/GET requests, and Squid always requires Content-Length in
  // POST/PUT requests.
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  $content_length = strlen($options['data']);
  if ($content_length > 0 || $options['method'] == 'POST' || $options['method'] == 'PUT') {
    $options['headers']['Content-Length'] = $content_length;
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  }

  // If the server URL has a user then attempt to use basic authentication.
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  if (isset($uri['user'])) {
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    $options['headers']['Authorization'] = 'Basic ' . base64_encode($uri['user'] . (!empty($uri['pass']) ? ":" . $uri['pass'] : ''));
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  }

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  // If the database prefix is being used by SimpleTest to run the tests in a copied
  // database then set the user-agent header to the database prefix so that any
  // calls to other Drupal pages will run the SimpleTest prefixed database. The
  // user-agent is used to ensure that multiple testing sessions running at the
  // same time won't interfere with each other as they would if the database
  // prefix were stored statically in a file or database variable.
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  if (is_string($db_prefix) && preg_match("/simpletest\d+/", $db_prefix, $matches)) {
    $options['headers']['User-Agent'] = drupal_generate_test_ua($matches[0]);
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  }

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  $request = $options['method'] . ' ' . $path . " HTTP/1.0\r\n";
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  foreach ($options['headers'] as $name => $value) {
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    $request .= $name . ': ' . trim($value) . "\r\n";
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  }
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  $request .= "\r\n" . $options['data'];
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  $result->request = $request;

  fwrite($fp, $request);

  // Fetch response.
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  $response = '';
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  while (!feof($fp)) {
    // Calculate how much time is left of the original timeout value.
    $timeout = $options['timeout'] - timer_read(__FUNCTION__) / 1000;
    if ($timeout <= 0) {
      $result->code = HTTP_REQUEST_TIMEOUT;
      $result->error = 'request timed out';
      return $result;
    }
    stream_set_timeout($fp, floor($timeout), floor(1000000 * fmod($timeout, 1)));
    $response .= fread($fp, 1024);
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  }
  fclose($fp);

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  // Parse response headers from the response body.
  list($response, $result->data) = explode("\r\n\r\n", $response, 2);
  $response = preg_split("/\r\n|\n|\r/", $response);
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  // Parse the response status line.
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  list($protocol, $code, $status_message) = explode(' ', trim(array_shift($response)), 3);
  $result->protocol = $protocol;
  $result->status_message = $status_message;

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  $result->headers = array();

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  // Parse the response headers.
  while ($line = trim(array_shift($response))) {
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    list($header, $value) = explode(':', $line, 2);
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    if (isset($result->headers[$header]) && $header == 'Set-Cookie') {
      // RFC 2109: the Set-Cookie response header comprises the token Set-
      // Cookie:, followed by a comma-separated list of one or more cookies.
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      $result->headers[$header] .= ',' . trim($value);
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    }
    else {
      $result->headers[$header] = trim($value);
    }
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  }

  $responses = array(
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    100 => 'Continue',
    101 => 'Switching Protocols',
    200 => 'OK',
    201 => 'Created',
    202 => 'Accepted',
    203 => 'Non-Authoritative Information',
    204 => 'No Content',
    205 => 'Reset Content',
    206 => 'Partial Content',
    300 => 'Multiple Choices',
    301 => 'Moved Permanently',
    302 => 'Found',
    303 => 'See Other',
    304 => 'Not Modified',
    305 => 'Use Proxy',
    307 => 'Temporary Redirect',
    400 => 'Bad Request',
    401 => 'Unauthorized',
    402 => 'Payment Required',
    403 => 'Forbidden',
    404 => 'Not Found',
    405 => 'Method Not Allowed',
    406 => 'Not Acceptable',
    407 => 'Proxy Authentication Required',
    408 => 'Request Time-out',
    409 => 'Conflict',
    410 => 'Gone',
    411 => 'Length Required',
    412 => 'Precondition Failed',
    413 => 'Request Entity Too Large',
    414 => 'Request-URI Too Large',
    415 => 'Unsupported Media Type',
    416 => 'Requested range not satisfiable',
    417 => 'Expectation Failed',
    500 => 'Internal Server Error',
    501 => 'Not Implemented',
    502 => 'Bad Gateway',
    503 => 'Service Unavailable',
    504 => 'Gateway Time-out',
    505 => 'HTTP Version not supported',
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  );
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  // RFC 2616 states that all unknown HTTP codes must be treated the same as the
  // base code in their class.
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  if (!isset($responses[$code])) {
    $code = floor($code / 100) * 100;
  }
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  $result->code = $code;
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  switch ($code) {
    case 200: // OK
    case 304: // Not modified
      break;
    case 301: // Moved permanently
    case 302: // Moved temporarily
    case 307: // Moved temporarily
      $location = $result->headers['Location'];
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      $options['timeout'] -= timer_read(__FUNCTION__) / 1000;
      if ($options['timeout'] <= 0) {
        $result->code = HTTP_REQUEST_TIMEOUT;
        $result->error = 'request timed out';
      }
      elseif ($options['max_redirects']) {
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        // Redirect to the new location.
        $options['max_redirects']--;
        $result = drupal_http_request($location, $options);
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        $result->redirect_code = $code;
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      }
      $result->redirect_url = $location;
      break;
    default:
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      $result->error = $status_message;
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  }

  return $result;
}
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/**
 * @} End of "HTTP handling".
 */
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/**
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 * Custom PHP error handler.
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 *
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 * @param $error_level
 *   The level of the error raised.
 * @param $message
 *   The error message.
 * @param $filename
 *   The filename that the error was raised in.
 * @param $line
 *   The line number the error was raised at.
 * @param $context
 *   An array that points to the active symbol table at the point the error occurred.
 */
function _drupal_error_handler($error_level, $message, $filename, $line, $context) {
  if ($error_level & error_reporting()) {
    // All these constants are documented at http://php.net/manual/en/errorfunc.constants.php
    $types = array(
      E_ERROR => 'Error',
      E_WARNING => 'Warning',
      E_PARSE => 'Parse error',
      E_NOTICE => 'Notice',
      E_CORE_ERROR => 'Core error',
      E_CORE_WARNING => 'Core warning',
      E_COMPILE_ERROR => 'Compile error',
      E_COMPILE_WARNING => 'Compile warning',
      E_USER_ERROR => 'User error',
      E_USER_WARNING => 'User warning',
      E_USER_NOTICE => 'User notice',
      E_STRICT => 'Strict warning',
      E_RECOVERABLE_ERROR => 'Recoverable fatal error'
    );
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    $caller = _drupal_get_last_caller(debug_backtrace());

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    // We treat recoverable errors as fatal.
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    _drupal_log_error(array(
      '%type' => isset($types[$error_level]) ? $types[$error_level] : 'Unknown error',
      '%message' => $message,
      '%function' => $caller['function'],
      '%file' => $caller['file'],
      '%line' => $caller['line'],
    ), $error_level == E_RECOVERABLE_ERROR);
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  }
}

/**
 * Custom PHP exception handler.
 *
 * Uncaught exceptions are those not enclosed in a try/catch block. They are
 * always fatal: the execution of the script will stop as soon as the exception
 * handler exits.
 *
 * @param $exception
 *   The exception object that was thrown.
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 */
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function _drupal_exception_handler($exception) {
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  // Log the message to the watchdog and return an error page to the user.
  _drupal_log_error(_drupal_decode_exception($exception), TRUE);
}

/**
 * Decode an exception, especially to retrive the correct caller.
 *
 * @param $exception
 *   The exception object that was thrown.
 * @return An error in the format expected by _drupal_log_error().
 */
function _drupal_decode_exception($exception) {
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  $message = $exception->getMessage();

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  $backtrace = $exception->getTrace();
  // Add the line throwing the exception to the backtrace.
  array_unshift($backtrace, array('line' => $exception->getLine(), 'file' => $exception->getFile()));

  // For PDOException errors, we try to return the initial caller,
  // skipping internal functions of the database layer.
  if ($exception instanceof PDOException) {
    // The first element in the stack is the call, the second element gives us the caller.
    // We skip calls that occurred in one of the classes of the database layer
    // or in one of its global functions.
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    $db_functions = array('db_query',  'db_query_range');
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    while (!empty($backtrace[1]) && ($caller = $backtrace[1]) &&
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        ((isset($caller['class']) && (strpos($caller['class'], 'Query') !== FALSE || strpos($caller['class'], 'Database') !== FALSE || strpos($caller['class'], 'PDO') !== FALSE)) ||
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        in_array($caller['function'], $db_functions))) {
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      // We remove that call.
      array_shift($backtrace);
    }
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    if (isset($exception->query_string, $exception->args)) {
      $message .= ": " . $exception->query_string . "; " . print_r($exception->args, TRUE);
    }
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  }
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  $caller = _drupal_get_last_caller($backtrace);
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  return array(
    '%type' => get_class($exception),
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    '%message' => $message,
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    '%function' => $caller['function'],
    '%file' => $caller['file'],
    '%line' => $caller['line'],
  );
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}
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/**
 * Log a PHP error or exception, display an error page in fatal cases.
 *
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 * @param $error
 *   An array with the following keys: %type, %message, %function, %file, %line.
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 * @param $fatal
 *   TRUE if the error is fatal.
 */
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function _drupal_log_error($error, $fatal = FALSE) {
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  // Initialize a maintenance theme if the boostrap was not complete.
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  // Do it early because drupal_set_message() triggers a drupal_theme_initialize().
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  if ($fatal && (drupal_get_bootstrap_phase() != DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_FULL)) {
    unset($GLOBALS['theme']);
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    if (!defined('MAINTENANCE_MODE')) {
      define('MAINTENANCE_MODE', 'error');
    }
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    drupal_maintenance_theme();
  }
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  // When running inside the testing framework, we relay the errors
  // to the tested site by the way of HTTP headers.
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  if (isset($_SERVER['HTTP_USER_AGENT']) && preg_match("/^simpletest\d+;/", $_SERVER['HTTP_USER_AGENT']) && !headers_sent() && (!defined('SIMPLETEST_COLLECT_ERRORS') || SIMPLETEST_COLLECT_ERRORS)) {
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    // $number does not use drupal_static as it should not be reset
    // as it uniquely identifies each PHP error.
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    static $number = 0;
    $assertion = array(
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      $error['%message'],
      $error['%type'],
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      array(
        'function' => $error['%function'],
        'file' => $error['%file'],
        'line' => $error['%line'],
      ),
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    );
    header('X-Drupal-Assertion-' . $number . ': ' . rawurlencode(serialize($assertion)));
    $number++;
  }

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  try {
    watchdog('php', '%type: %message in %function (line %line of %file).', $error, WATCHDOG_ERROR);
  }
  catch (Exception $e) {
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    // Ignore any additional watchdog exception, as that probably means
    // that the database was not initialized correctly.
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  }
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  if ($fatal) {
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    drupal_add_http_header('500 Service unavailable (with message)');
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  }

  if (isset($_SERVER['HTTP_X_REQUESTED_WITH']) && $_SERVER['HTTP_X_REQUESTED_WITH'] == 'XMLHttpRequest') {
    if ($fatal) {
      // When called from JavaScript, simply output the error message.
      print t('%type: %message in %function (line %line of %file).', $error);
      exit;
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    }
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  }
  else {
    // Display the message if the current error reporting level allows this type
    // of message to be displayed, and unconditionnaly in update.php.
    $error_level = variable_get('error_level', ERROR_REPORTING_DISPLAY_ALL);
    $display_error = $error_level == ERROR_REPORTING_DISPLAY_ALL || ($error_level == ERROR_REPORTING_DISPLAY_SOME && $error['%type'] != 'Notice');
    if ($display_error || (defined('MAINTENANCE_MODE') && MAINTENANCE_MODE == 'update')) {
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      $class = 'error';

      // If error type is 'User notice' then treat it as debug information
      // instead of an error message, see dd().
      if ($error['%type'] == 'User notice') {
        $error['%type'] = 'Debug';
        $class = 'status';
      }

      drupal_set_message(t('%type: %message in %function (line %line of %file).', $error), $class);
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    }

    if ($fatal) {
      drupal_set_title(t('Error'));
      // We fallback to a maintenance page at this point, because the page generation
      // itself can generate errors.
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      print theme('maintenance_page', array('content' => t('The website encountered an unexpected error. Please try again later.')));
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      exit;
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    }
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  }
}

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/**
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 * Gets the last caller from a backtrace.
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 *
 * @param $backtrace
 *   A standard PHP backtrace.
 * @return
 *   An associative array with keys 'file', 'line' and 'function'.
 */
function _drupal_get_last_caller($backtrace) {
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  // Errors that occur inside PHP internal functions do not generate
  // information about file and line. Ignore black listed functions.
  $blacklist = array('debug');
  while (($backtrace && !isset($backtrace[0]['line'])) ||
         (isset($backtrace[1]['function']) && in_array($backtrace[1]['function'], $blacklist))) {
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    array_shift($backtrace);
  }

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  // The first trace is the call itself.
  // It gives us the line and the file of the last call.
  $call = $backtrace[0];
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  // The second call give us the function where the call originated.
  if (isset($backtrace[1])) {
    if (isset($backtrace[1]['class'])) {
      $call['function'] = $backtrace[1]['class'] . $backtrace[1]['type'] . $backtrace[1]['function'] . '()';
    }
    else {
      $call['function'] = $backtrace[1]['function'] . '()';
    }
  }
  else {
    $call['function'] = 'main()';
  }
  return $call;
}

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function _fix_gpc_magic(&$item) {
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  if (is_array($item)) {
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    array_walk($item, '_fix_gpc_magic');
  }
  else {
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    $item = stripslashes($item);
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  }
}

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/**
 * Helper function to strip slashes from $_FILES skipping over the tmp_name keys
 * since PHP generates single backslashes for file paths on Windows systems.
 *
 * tmp_name does not have backslashes added see
 * http://php.net/manual/en/features.file-upload.php#42280
 */
function _fix_gpc_magic_files(&$item, $key) {
  if ($key != 'tmp_name') {
    if (is_array($item)) {
      array_walk($item, '_fix_gpc_magic_files');
    }
    else {
      $item = stripslashes($item);
    }
  }
}

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/**
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 * Fix double-escaping problems caused by "magic quotes" in some PHP installations.
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 */
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function fix_gpc_magic() {
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  $fixed = &drupal_static(__FUNCTION__, FALSE);
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  if (!$fixed && ini_get('magic_quotes_gpc')) {
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    array_walk($_GET, '_fix_gpc_magic');
    array_walk($_POST, '_fix_gpc_magic');
    array_walk($_COOKIE, '_fix_gpc_magic');
    array_walk($_REQUEST, '_fix_gpc_magic');
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    array_walk($_FILES, '_fix_gpc_magic_files');
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    $fixed = TRUE;
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  }
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}

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/**
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 * Translate strings to the page language or a given language.
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 *
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 * Human-readable text that will be displayed somewhere within a page should
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 * be run through the t() function.
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 *
 * Examples:
 * @code
 *   if (!$info || !$info['extension']) {
 *     form_set_error('picture_upload', t('The uploaded file was not an image.'));
 *   }
 *
 *   $form['submit'] = array(
 *     '#type' => 'submit',
 *     '#value' => t('Log in'),
 *   );
 * @endcode
 *
 * Any text within t() can be extracted by translators and changed into
 * the equivalent text in their native language.
 *
 * Special variables called "placeholders" are used to signal dynamic
 * information in a string which should not be translated. Placeholders
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 * can also be used for text that may change from time to time (such as
 * link paths) to be changed without requiring updates to translations.
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 *
 * For example:
 * @code
 *   $output = t('There are currently %members and %visitors online.', array(
 *     '%members' => format_plural($total_users, '1 user', '@count users'),
 *     '%visitors' => format_plural($guests->count, '1 guest', '@count guests')));
 * @endcode
 *
 * There are three styles of placeholders:
 * - !variable, which indicates that the text should be inserted as-is. This is
 *   useful for inserting variables into things like e-mail.
 *   @code
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 *     $message[] = t("If you don't want to receive such e-mails, you can change your settings at !url.", array('!url' => url("user/$account->uid", array('absolute' => TRUE))));
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 *   @endcode
 *
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 * - @variable, which indicates that the text should be run through
 *   check_plain, to escape HTML characters. Use this for any output that's
 *   displayed within a Drupal page.
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 *   @code
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 *     drupal_set_title($title = t("@name's blog", array('@name' => format_username($account))), PASS_THROUGH);
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 *   @endcode
 *
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 * - %variable, which indicates that the string should be HTML escaped and
 *   highlighted with theme_placeholder() which shows up by default as
 *   <em>emphasized</em>.
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 *   @code
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 *     $message = t('%name-from sent %name-to an e-mail.', array('%name-from' => format_username($user), '%name-to' => format_username($account)));
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 *   @endcode
 *
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 * When using t(), try to put entire sentences and strings in one t() call.
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 * This makes it easier for translators, as it provides context as to what
 * each word refers to. HTML markup within translation strings is allowed, but
 * should be avoided if possible. The exception are embedded links; link
 * titles add a context for translators, so should be kept in the main string.
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 *
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 * Here is an example of incorrect usage of t():
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 * @code
 *   $output .= t('<p>Go to the @contact-page.</p>', array('@contact-page' => l(t('contact page'), 'contact')));
 * @