common.inc 143 KB
Newer Older
Dries's avatar
Dries committed
1
<?php
2
// $Id$
Dries's avatar
Dries committed
3

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
/**
 * @file
 * Common functions that many Drupal modules will need to reference.
 *
 * The functions that are critical and need to be available even when serving
 * a cached page are instead located in bootstrap.inc.
 */

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
/**
 * Error reporting level: display no errors.
 */
define('ERROR_REPORTING_HIDE', 0);

/**
 * Error reporting level: display errors and warnings.
 */
define('ERROR_REPORTING_DISPLAY_SOME', 1);

/**
 * Error reporting level: display all messages.
 */
define('ERROR_REPORTING_DISPLAY_ALL', 2);

27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41
/**
 * Return status for saving which involved creating a new item.
 */
define('SAVED_NEW', 1);

/**
 * Return status for saving which involved an update to an existing item.
 */
define('SAVED_UPDATED', 2);

/**
 * Return status for saving which deleted an existing item.
 */
define('SAVED_DELETED', 3);

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57
/**
 * The weight of JavaScript libraries, settings or jQuery plugins being
 * added to the page.
 */
define('JS_LIBRARY', -100);

/**
 * The default weight of JavaScript being added to the page.
 */
define('JS_DEFAULT', 0);

/**
 * The weight of theme JavaScript code being added to the page.
 */
define('JS_THEME', 100);

58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65
/**
 * Set content for a specified region.
 *
 * @param $region
 *   Page region the content is assigned to.
 * @param $data
 *   Content to be set.
 */
66
function drupal_set_content($region = NULL, $data = NULL) {
67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78
  static $content = array();

  if (!is_null($region) && !is_null($data)) {
    $content[$region][] = $data;
  }
  return $content;
}

/**
 * Get assigned content.
 *
 * @param $region
79 80
 *   A specified region to fetch content for. If NULL, all regions will be
 *   returned.
81 82 83
 * @param $delimiter
 *   Content to be inserted between exploded array elements.
 */
84
function drupal_get_content($region = NULL, $delimiter = ' ') {
85
  $content = drupal_set_content();
86 87
  if (isset($region)) {
    if (isset($content[$region]) && is_array($content[$region])) {
Steven Wittens's avatar
Steven Wittens committed
88
      return implode($delimiter, $content[$region]);
89
    }
90 91 92 93
  }
  else {
    foreach (array_keys($content) as $region) {
      if (is_array($content[$region])) {
Steven Wittens's avatar
Steven Wittens committed
94
        $content[$region] = implode($delimiter, $content[$region]);
95 96 97 98 99 100
      }
    }
    return $content;
  }
}

101
/**
102
 * Set the breadcrumb trail for the current page.
103
 *
104 105 106
 * @param $breadcrumb
 *   Array of links, starting with "home" and proceeding up to but not including
 *   the current page.
107
 */
108 109 110
function drupal_set_breadcrumb($breadcrumb = NULL) {
  static $stored_breadcrumb;

111
  if (!is_null($breadcrumb)) {
112 113 114 115 116
    $stored_breadcrumb = $breadcrumb;
  }
  return $stored_breadcrumb;
}

117 118 119
/**
 * Get the breadcrumb trail for the current page.
 */
120 121 122
function drupal_get_breadcrumb() {
  $breadcrumb = drupal_set_breadcrumb();

123
  if (is_null($breadcrumb)) {
124 125 126 127 128 129
    $breadcrumb = menu_get_active_breadcrumb();
  }

  return $breadcrumb;
}

130
/**
131 132
 * Return a string containing RDF namespaces for the <html> tag of an XHTML
 * page.
133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142
 */
function drupal_get_rdf_namespaces() {
  // Serialize the RDF namespaces used in RDFa annotation.
  $xml_rdf_namespaces = array();
  foreach (module_invoke_all('rdf_namespaces') as $prefix => $uri) {
    $xml_rdf_namespaces[] = 'xmlns:' . $prefix . '="' . $uri . '"';
  }
  return implode("\n  ", $xml_rdf_namespaces);
}

Dries's avatar
Dries committed
143
/**
144
 * Add output to the head tag of the HTML page.
145
 *
146
 * This function can be called as long the headers aren't sent.
Dries's avatar
Dries committed
147
 */
148
function drupal_add_html_head($data = NULL) {
149
  static $stored_head = '';
Dries's avatar
Dries committed
150 151

  if (!is_null($data)) {
152
    $stored_head .= $data . "\n";
Dries's avatar
Dries committed
153 154 155 156
  }
  return $stored_head;
}

157 158 159
/**
 * Retrieve output to be displayed in the head tag of the HTML page.
 */
Dries's avatar
Dries committed
160
function drupal_get_html_head() {
161
  $output = "<meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=utf-8\" />\n";
162
  return $output . drupal_add_html_head();
Dries's avatar
Dries committed
163 164
}

165
/**
166
 * Reset the static variable which holds the aliases mapped for this request.
167
 */
168 169
function drupal_clear_path_cache() {
  drupal_lookup_path('wipe');
170
}
171

172
/**
173 174
 * Add a feed URL for the current page.
 *
175 176
 * This function can be called as long the HTML header hasn't been sent.
 *
177
 * @param $url
178
 *   A url for the feed.
179
 * @param $title
180
 *   The title of the feed.
181
 */
182
function drupal_add_feed($url = NULL, $title = '') {
183 184
  static $stored_feed_links = array();

185
  if (!is_null($url) && !isset($stored_feed_links[$url])) {
186
    $stored_feed_links[$url] = theme('feed_icon', $url, $title);
187 188 189 190 191

    drupal_add_link(array('rel' => 'alternate',
                          'type' => 'application/rss+xml',
                          'title' => $title,
                          'href' => $url));
192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199
  }
  return $stored_feed_links;
}

/**
 * Get the feed URLs for the current page.
 *
 * @param $delimiter
200
 *   A delimiter to split feeds by.
201 202 203 204 205 206
 */
function drupal_get_feeds($delimiter = "\n") {
  $feeds = drupal_add_feed();
  return implode($feeds, $delimiter);
}

207 208 209
/**
 * @name HTTP handling
 * @{
210
 * Functions to properly handle HTTP responses.
211 212
 */

213 214 215 216
/**
 * Parse an array into a valid urlencoded query string.
 *
 * @param $query
217
 *   The array to be processed e.g. $_GET.
218
 * @param $exclude
219 220
 *   The array filled with keys to be excluded. Use parent[child] to exclude
 *   nested items.
221
 * @param $parent
222
 *   Should not be passed, only used in recursive calls.
223
 * @return
224
 *   An urlencoded string which can be appended to/as the URL query string.
225 226 227 228 229
 */
function drupal_query_string_encode($query, $exclude = array(), $parent = '') {
  $params = array();

  foreach ($query as $key => $value) {
230
    $key = drupal_urlencode($key);
231
    if ($parent) {
232
      $key = $parent . '[' . $key . ']';
233 234
    }

235
    if (in_array($key, $exclude)) {
236 237 238 239 240 241 242
      continue;
    }

    if (is_array($value)) {
      $params[] = drupal_query_string_encode($value, $exclude, $key);
    }
    else {
243
      $params[] = $key . '=' . drupal_urlencode($value);
244 245 246 247 248 249
    }
  }

  return implode('&', $params);
}

250
/**
251
 * Prepare a destination query string for use in combination with drupal_goto().
252
 *
253 254 255 256
 * Used to direct the user back to the referring page after completing a form.
 * By default the current URL is returned. If a destination exists in the
 * previous request, that destination is returned. As such, a destination can
 * persist across multiple pages.
257 258 259 260
 *
 * @see drupal_goto()
 */
function drupal_get_destination() {
261
  if (isset($_REQUEST['destination'])) {
262
    return 'destination=' . urlencode($_REQUEST['destination']);
263 264
  }
  else {
265 266
    // Use $_GET here to retrieve the original path in source form.
    $path = isset($_GET['q']) ? $_GET['q'] : '';
267 268
    $query = drupal_query_string_encode($_GET, array('q'));
    if ($query != '') {
269
      $path .= '?' . $query;
270
    }
271
    return 'destination=' . urlencode($path);
272 273 274
  }
}

275
/**
276
 * Send the user to a different Drupal page.
277
 *
278 279
 * This issues an on-site HTTP redirect. The function makes sure the redirected
 * URL is formatted correctly.
280
 *
281
 * Usually the redirected URL is constructed from this function's input
282
 * parameters. However you may override that behavior by setting a
283
 * destination in either the $_REQUEST-array (i.e. by using
284
 * the query string of an URI) This is used to direct the user back to
285
 * the proper page after completing a form. For example, after editing
286
 * a post on the 'admin/content/node'-page or after having logged on using the
287
 * 'user login'-block in a sidebar. The function drupal_get_destination()
288 289
 * can be used to help set the destination URL.
 *
290 291
 * Drupal will ensure that messages set by drupal_set_message() and other
 * session data are written to the database before the user is redirected.
292
 *
293
 * This function ends the request; use it instead of a return in your menu callback.
294 295
 *
 * @param $path
296
 *   A Drupal path or a full URL.
297
 * @param $query
298
 *   A query string component, if any.
299
 * @param $fragment
300
 *   A destination fragment identifier (named anchor).
301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308
 * @param $http_response_code
 *   Valid values for an actual "goto" as per RFC 2616 section 10.3 are:
 *   - 301 Moved Permanently (the recommended value for most redirects)
 *   - 302 Found (default in Drupal and PHP, sometimes used for spamming search
 *         engines)
 *   - 303 See Other
 *   - 304 Not Modified
 *   - 305 Use Proxy
309
 *   - 307 Temporary Redirect (alternative to "503 Site Down for Maintenance")
310
 *   Note: Other values are defined by RFC 2616, but are rarely used and poorly
311
 *   supported.
312
 * @see drupal_get_destination()
313
 */
314
function drupal_goto($path = '', $query = NULL, $fragment = NULL, $http_response_code = 302) {
315

316
  if (isset($_REQUEST['destination'])) {
317
    extract(parse_url(urldecode($_REQUEST['destination'])));
318 319
  }

320
  $url = url($path, array('query' => $query, 'fragment' => $fragment, 'absolute' => TRUE));
321

322
  // Allow modules to react to the end of the page request before redirecting.
323
  // We do not want this while running update.php.
324
  if (!defined('MAINTENANCE_MODE') || MAINTENANCE_MODE != 'update') {
325 326
    module_invoke_all('exit', $url);
  }
327

328 329 330 331 332
  if (drupal_session_is_started()) {
    // Even though session_write_close() is registered as a shutdown function,
    // we need all session data written to the database before redirecting.
    session_write_close();
  }
333

334
  header('Location: ' . $url, TRUE, $http_response_code);
335 336

  // The "Location" header sends a redirect status code to the HTTP daemon. In
337 338
  // some cases this can be wrong, so we make sure none of the code below the
  // drupal_goto() call gets executed upon redirection.
339 340 341
  exit();
}

342
/**
343
 * Generates a site offline message.
344 345
 */
function drupal_site_offline() {
346
  drupal_maintenance_theme();
347
  drupal_set_header('503 Service unavailable');
348
  drupal_set_title(t('Site offline'));
349
  print theme('maintenance_page', filter_xss_admin(variable_get('site_offline_message',
350
    t('@site is currently under maintenance. We should be back shortly. Thank you for your patience.', array('@site' => variable_get('site_name', 'Drupal'))))));
351 352
}

353 354 355
/**
 * Generates a 404 error if the request can not be handled.
 */
356
function drupal_not_found() {
357
  drupal_set_header('404 Not Found');
358

359
  watchdog('page not found', check_plain($_GET['q']), NULL, WATCHDOG_WARNING);
360

361
  // Keep old path for reference.
362 363 364 365
  if (!isset($_REQUEST['destination'])) {
    $_REQUEST['destination'] = $_GET['q'];
  }

366
  $path = drupal_get_normal_path(variable_get('site_404', ''));
drumm's avatar
drumm committed
367
  if ($path && $path != $_GET['q']) {
368 369
    // Custom 404 handler. Set the active item in case there are tabs to
    // display, or other dependencies on the path.
370
    menu_set_active_item($path);
371
    $return = menu_execute_active_handler($path);
372
  }
373

374
  if (empty($return) || $return == MENU_NOT_FOUND || $return == MENU_ACCESS_DENIED) {
375
    // Standard 404 handler.
drumm's avatar
drumm committed
376
    drupal_set_title(t('Page not found'));
377
    $return = t('The requested page could not be found.');
378
  }
379

380
  $page = drupal_get_page($return);
381
  // To conserve CPU and bandwidth, omit the blocks.
382 383 384
  $page['#show_blocks'] = FALSE;

  print drupal_render_page($page);
385
}
386

387 388 389 390
/**
 * Generates a 403 error if the request is not allowed.
 */
function drupal_access_denied() {
391
  drupal_set_header('403 Forbidden');
392
  watchdog('access denied', check_plain($_GET['q']), NULL, WATCHDOG_WARNING);
393

394
  // Keep old path for reference.
395 396 397 398
  if (!isset($_REQUEST['destination'])) {
    $_REQUEST['destination'] = $_GET['q'];
  }

399
  $path = drupal_get_normal_path(variable_get('site_403', ''));
drumm's avatar
drumm committed
400
  if ($path && $path != $_GET['q']) {
401 402
    // Custom 403 handler. Set the active item in case there are tabs to
    // display or other dependencies on the path.
403
    menu_set_active_item($path);
404
    $return = menu_execute_active_handler($path);
405
  }
406

407
  if (empty($return) || $return == MENU_NOT_FOUND || $return == MENU_ACCESS_DENIED) {
408
    // Standard 403 handler.
drumm's avatar
drumm committed
409 410
    drupal_set_title(t('Access denied'));
    $return = t('You are not authorized to access this page.');
411
  }
412 413

  print drupal_render_page($return);
414 415
}

416
/**
417
 * Perform an HTTP request.
418
 *
419 420
 * This is a flexible and powerful HTTP client implementation. Correctly
 * handles GET, POST, PUT or any other HTTP requests. Handles redirects.
421 422 423
 *
 * @param $url
 *   A string containing a fully qualified URI.
424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434
 * @param $options
 *   (optional) An array which can have one or more of following keys:
 *   - headers
 *       An array containing request headers to send as name/value pairs.
 *   - method
 *       A string containing the request method. Defaults to 'GET'.
 *   - data
 *       A string containing the request body. Defaults to NULL.
 *   - max_redirects
 *       An integer representing how many times a redirect may be followed.
 *       Defaults to 3.
435
 * @return
436 437 438 439 440 441
 *   An object which can have one or more of the following parameters:
 *   - request
 *       A string containing the request body that was sent.
 *   - code
 *       An integer containing the response status code, or the error code if
 *       an error occurred.
442 443 444 445
 *   - protocol
 *      The response protocol (e.g. HTTP/1.1 or HTTP/1.0).
 *   - status_message
 *      The status message from the response, if a response was received.
446 447 448 449 450
 *   - redirect_code
 *       If redirected, an integer containing the initial response status code.
 *   - redirect_url
 *       If redirected, a string containing the redirection location.
 *   - error
451
 *       If an error occurred, the error message. Otherwise not set.
452 453 454 455
 *   - headers
 *       An array containing the response headers as name/value pairs.
 *   - data
 *       A string containing the response body that was received.
456
 */
457
function drupal_http_request($url, array $options = array()) {
458
  global $db_prefix;
459

460
  $result = new stdClass();
461

462
  // Parse the URL and make sure we can handle the schema.
463
  $uri = @parse_url($url);
464

465 466
  if ($uri == FALSE) {
    $result->error = 'unable to parse URL';
467 468 469
    return $result;
  }

470 471
  if (!isset($uri['scheme'])) {
    $result->error = 'missing schema';
472 473 474
    return $result;
  }

475 476
  switch ($uri['scheme']) {
    case 'http':
477
      $port = isset($uri['port']) ? $uri['port'] : 80;
478
      $host = $uri['host'] . ($port != 80 ? ':' . $port : '');
479
      $fp = @fsockopen($uri['host'], $port, $errno, $errstr, 15);
480 481
      break;
    case 'https':
482
      // Note: Only works when PHP is compiled with OpenSSL support.
483
      $port = isset($uri['port']) ? $uri['port'] : 443;
484 485
      $host = $uri['host'] . ($port != 443 ? ':' . $port : '');
      $fp = @fsockopen('ssl://' . $uri['host'], $port, $errno, $errstr, 20);
486 487
      break;
    default:
488
      $result->error = 'invalid schema ' . $uri['scheme'];
489 490 491
      return $result;
  }

492
  // Make sure the socket opened properly.
493
  if (!$fp) {
494 495
    // When a network error occurs, we use a negative number so it does not
    // clash with the HTTP status codes.
496 497
    $result->code = -$errno;
    $result->error = trim($errstr);
498 499 500 501 502 503 504

    // Mark that this request failed. This will trigger a check of the web
    // server's ability to make outgoing HTTP requests the next time that
    // requirements checking is performed.
    // @see system_requirements()
    variable_set('drupal_http_request_fails', TRUE);

505 506 507
    return $result;
  }

508
  // Construct the path to act on.
509 510
  $path = isset($uri['path']) ? $uri['path'] : '/';
  if (isset($uri['query'])) {
511
    $path .= '?' . $uri['query'];
512 513
  }

514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525
  // Merge the default options.
  $options += array(
    'headers' => array(),
    'method' => 'GET',
    'data' => NULL,
    'max_redirects' => 3,
  );

  // Merge the default headers.
  $options['headers'] += array(
    'User-Agent' => 'Drupal (+http://drupal.org/)',
    'Content-Length' => strlen($options['data']),
526 527
  );

528 529 530 531 532
  // RFC 2616: "non-standard ports MUST, default ports MAY be included".
  // We don't add the standard port to prevent from breaking rewrite rules
  // checking the host that do not take into account the port number.
  $options['headers']['Host'] = $host;

533 534
  // If the server url has a user then attempt to use basic authentication
  if (isset($uri['user'])) {
535
    $options['headers']['Authorization'] = 'Basic ' . base64_encode($uri['user'] . (!empty($uri['pass']) ? ":" . $uri['pass'] : ''));
536 537
  }

538 539 540 541 542 543
  // If the database prefix is being used by SimpleTest to run the tests in a copied
  // database then set the user-agent header to the database prefix so that any
  // calls to other Drupal pages will run the SimpleTest prefixed database. The
  // user-agent is used to ensure that multiple testing sessions running at the
  // same time won't interfere with each other as they would if the database
  // prefix were stored statically in a file or database variable.
544
  if (preg_match("/simpletest\d+/", $db_prefix, $matches)) {
545
    $options['headers']['User-Agent'] = $matches[0];
546 547
  }

548
  $request = $options['method'] . ' ' . $path . " HTTP/1.0\r\n";
549
  foreach ($options['headers'] as $name => $value) {
550
    $request .= $name . ': ' . trim($value) . "\r\n";
551
  }
552
  $request .= "\r\n" . $options['data'];
553 554 555 556 557
  $result->request = $request;

  fwrite($fp, $request);

  // Fetch response.
558
  $response = '';
559 560
  while (!feof($fp) && $chunk = fread($fp, 1024)) {
    $response .= $chunk;
561 562 563
  }
  fclose($fp);

564 565 566
  // Parse response headers from the response body.
  list($response, $result->data) = explode("\r\n\r\n", $response, 2);
  $response = preg_split("/\r\n|\n|\r/", $response);
567

568
  // Parse the response status line.
569 570 571 572
  list($protocol, $code, $status_message) = explode(' ', trim(array_shift($response)), 3);
  $result->protocol = $protocol;
  $result->status_message = $status_message;

573 574
  $result->headers = array();

575 576
  // Parse the response headers.
  while ($line = trim(array_shift($response))) {
577
    list($header, $value) = explode(':', $line, 2);
578 579 580
    if (isset($result->headers[$header]) && $header == 'Set-Cookie') {
      // RFC 2109: the Set-Cookie response header comprises the token Set-
      // Cookie:, followed by a comma-separated list of one or more cookies.
581
      $result->headers[$header] .= ',' . trim($value);
582 583 584 585
    }
    else {
      $result->headers[$header] = trim($value);
    }
586 587 588
  }

  $responses = array(
589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628
    100 => 'Continue',
    101 => 'Switching Protocols',
    200 => 'OK',
    201 => 'Created',
    202 => 'Accepted',
    203 => 'Non-Authoritative Information',
    204 => 'No Content',
    205 => 'Reset Content',
    206 => 'Partial Content',
    300 => 'Multiple Choices',
    301 => 'Moved Permanently',
    302 => 'Found',
    303 => 'See Other',
    304 => 'Not Modified',
    305 => 'Use Proxy',
    307 => 'Temporary Redirect',
    400 => 'Bad Request',
    401 => 'Unauthorized',
    402 => 'Payment Required',
    403 => 'Forbidden',
    404 => 'Not Found',
    405 => 'Method Not Allowed',
    406 => 'Not Acceptable',
    407 => 'Proxy Authentication Required',
    408 => 'Request Time-out',
    409 => 'Conflict',
    410 => 'Gone',
    411 => 'Length Required',
    412 => 'Precondition Failed',
    413 => 'Request Entity Too Large',
    414 => 'Request-URI Too Large',
    415 => 'Unsupported Media Type',
    416 => 'Requested range not satisfiable',
    417 => 'Expectation Failed',
    500 => 'Internal Server Error',
    501 => 'Not Implemented',
    502 => 'Bad Gateway',
    503 => 'Service Unavailable',
    504 => 'Gateway Time-out',
    505 => 'HTTP Version not supported',
629
  );
630 631
  // RFC 2616 states that all unknown HTTP codes must be treated the same as the
  // base code in their class.
632 633 634
  if (!isset($responses[$code])) {
    $code = floor($code / 100) * 100;
  }
635
  $result->code = $code;
636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644

  switch ($code) {
    case 200: // OK
    case 304: // Not modified
      break;
    case 301: // Moved permanently
    case 302: // Moved temporarily
    case 307: // Moved temporarily
      $location = $result->headers['Location'];
645 646 647 648
      if ($options['max_redirects']) {
        // Redirect to the new location.
        $options['max_redirects']--;
        $result = drupal_http_request($location, $options);
649
        $result->redirect_code = $code;
650 651 652 653
      }
      $result->redirect_url = $location;
      break;
    default:
654
      $result->error = $status_message;
655 656 657 658
  }

  return $result;
}
659 660 661
/**
 * @} End of "HTTP handling".
 */
662

663
/**
664
 * Custom PHP error handler.
665
 *
666 667 668 669 670 671 672 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 691 692 693 694 695
 * @param $error_level
 *   The level of the error raised.
 * @param $message
 *   The error message.
 * @param $filename
 *   The filename that the error was raised in.
 * @param $line
 *   The line number the error was raised at.
 * @param $context
 *   An array that points to the active symbol table at the point the error occurred.
 */
function _drupal_error_handler($error_level, $message, $filename, $line, $context) {
  if ($error_level & error_reporting()) {
    // All these constants are documented at http://php.net/manual/en/errorfunc.constants.php
    $types = array(
      E_ERROR => 'Error',
      E_WARNING => 'Warning',
      E_PARSE => 'Parse error',
      E_NOTICE => 'Notice',
      E_CORE_ERROR => 'Core error',
      E_CORE_WARNING => 'Core warning',
      E_COMPILE_ERROR => 'Compile error',
      E_COMPILE_WARNING => 'Compile warning',
      E_USER_ERROR => 'User error',
      E_USER_WARNING => 'User warning',
      E_USER_NOTICE => 'User notice',
      E_STRICT => 'Strict warning',
      E_RECOVERABLE_ERROR => 'Recoverable fatal error'
    );
    $backtrace = debug_backtrace();
696

697 698
    $caller = _drupal_get_last_caller(debug_backtrace());

699
    // We treat recoverable errors as fatal.
700 701 702 703 704 705 706
    _drupal_log_error(array(
      '%type' => isset($types[$error_level]) ? $types[$error_level] : 'Unknown error',
      '%message' => $message,
      '%function' => $caller['function'],
      '%file' => $caller['file'],
      '%line' => $caller['line'],
    ), $error_level == E_RECOVERABLE_ERROR);
707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718
  }
}

/**
 * Custom PHP exception handler.
 *
 * Uncaught exceptions are those not enclosed in a try/catch block. They are
 * always fatal: the execution of the script will stop as soon as the exception
 * handler exits.
 *
 * @param $exception
 *   The exception object that was thrown.
719
 */
720
function _drupal_exception_handler($exception) {
721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732
  // Log the message to the watchdog and return an error page to the user.
  _drupal_log_error(_drupal_decode_exception($exception), TRUE);
}

/**
 * Decode an exception, especially to retrive the correct caller.
 *
 * @param $exception
 *   The exception object that was thrown.
 * @return An error in the format expected by _drupal_log_error().
 */
function _drupal_decode_exception($exception) {
733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743
  $backtrace = $exception->getTrace();
  // Add the line throwing the exception to the backtrace.
  array_unshift($backtrace, array('line' => $exception->getLine(), 'file' => $exception->getFile()));

  // For PDOException errors, we try to return the initial caller,
  // skipping internal functions of the database layer.
  if ($exception instanceof PDOException) {
    // The first element in the stack is the call, the second element gives us the caller.
    // We skip calls that occurred in one of the classes of the database layer
    // or in one of its global functions.
    $db_functions = array('db_query', 'pager_query', 'db_query_range', 'db_query_temporary', 'update_sql');
744
    while (!empty($backtrace[1]) && ($caller = $backtrace[1]) &&
745 746 747 748 749
         ((isset($caller['class']) && (strpos($caller['class'], 'Query') !== FALSE || strpos($caller['class'], 'Database') !== FALSE)) ||
         in_array($caller['function'], $db_functions))) {
      // We remove that call.
      array_shift($backtrace);
    }
750
  }
751
  $caller = _drupal_get_last_caller($backtrace);
752

753 754 755 756 757 758 759
  return array(
    '%type' => get_class($exception),
    '%message' => $exception->getMessage(),
    '%function' => $caller['function'],
    '%file' => $caller['file'],
    '%line' => $caller['line'],
  );
760
}
761

762 763 764
/**
 * Log a PHP error or exception, display an error page in fatal cases.
 *
765 766
 * @param $error
 *   An array with the following keys: %type, %message, %function, %file, %line.
767 768 769
 * @param $fatal
 *   TRUE if the error is fatal.
 */
770
function _drupal_log_error($error, $fatal = FALSE) {
771
  // Initialize a maintenance theme if the boostrap was not complete.
772 773 774
  // Do it early because drupal_set_message() triggers an init_theme().
  if ($fatal && (drupal_get_bootstrap_phase() != DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_FULL)) {
    unset($GLOBALS['theme']);
775 776 777
    if (!defined('MAINTENANCE_MODE')) {
      define('MAINTENANCE_MODE', 'error');
    }
778 779
    drupal_maintenance_theme();
  }
780

781 782
  // When running inside the testing framework, we relay the errors
  // to the tested site by the way of HTTP headers.
783
  if (preg_match("/^simpletest\d+/", $_SERVER['HTTP_USER_AGENT']) && !headers_sent() && (!defined('SIMPLETEST_COLLECT_ERRORS') || SIMPLETEST_COLLECT_ERRORS)) {
784 785
    static $number = 0;
    $assertion = array(
786 787
      $error['%message'],
      $error['%type'],
788 789 790 791 792
      array(
        'function' => $error['%function'],
        'file' => $error['%file'],
        'line' => $error['%line'],
      ),
793 794 795 796 797
    );
    header('X-Drupal-Assertion-' . $number . ': ' . rawurlencode(serialize($assertion)));
    $number++;
  }

798 799 800 801
  try {
    watchdog('php', '%type: %message in %function (line %line of %file).', $error, WATCHDOG_ERROR);
  }
  catch (Exception $e) {
802 803
    // Ignore any additional watchdog exception, as that probably means
    // that the database was not initialized correctly.
804
  }
805

806
  if ($fatal) {
807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814
    drupal_set_header($_SERVER['SERVER_PROTOCOL'] . ' 500 Service unavailable (with message)');
  }

  if (isset($_SERVER['HTTP_X_REQUESTED_WITH']) && $_SERVER['HTTP_X_REQUESTED_WITH'] == 'XMLHttpRequest') {
    if ($fatal) {
      // When called from JavaScript, simply output the error message.
      print t('%type: %message in %function (line %line of %file).', $error);
      exit;
Dries's avatar
Dries committed
815
    }
816 817 818 819 820 821 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829
  }
  else {
    // Display the message if the current error reporting level allows this type
    // of message to be displayed, and unconditionnaly in update.php.
    $error_level = variable_get('error_level', ERROR_REPORTING_DISPLAY_ALL);
    $display_error = $error_level == ERROR_REPORTING_DISPLAY_ALL || ($error_level == ERROR_REPORTING_DISPLAY_SOME && $error['%type'] != 'Notice');
    if ($display_error || (defined('MAINTENANCE_MODE') && MAINTENANCE_MODE == 'update')) {
      drupal_set_message(t('%type: %message in %function (line %line of %file).', $error), 'error');
    }

    if ($fatal) {
      drupal_set_title(t('Error'));
      // We fallback to a maintenance page at this point, because the page generation
      // itself can generate errors.
830
      print theme('maintenance_page', t('The website encountered an unexpected error. Please try again later.'), FALSE);
831
      exit;
832
    }
Dries's avatar
Dries committed
833 834 835
  }
}

836
/**
837
 * Gets the last caller from a backtrace.
838 839 840 841 842 843 844
 *
 * @param $backtrace
 *   A standard PHP backtrace.
 * @return
 *   An associative array with keys 'file', 'line' and 'function'.
 */
function _drupal_get_last_caller($backtrace) {
845 846 847 848 849 850
  // Errors that occur inside PHP internal functions
  // do not generate information about file and line.
  while ($backtrace && !isset($backtrace[0]['line'])) {
    array_shift($backtrace);
  }

851 852 853
  // The first trace is the call itself.
  // It gives us the line and the file of the last call.
  $call = $backtrace[0];
854

855 856 857 858 859 860 861 862 863 864 865 866 867 868 869
  // The second call give us the function where the call originated.
  if (isset($backtrace[1])) {
    if (isset($backtrace[1]['class'])) {
      $call['function'] = $backtrace[1]['class'] . $backtrace[1]['type'] . $backtrace[1]['function'] . '()';
    }
    else {
      $call['function'] = $backtrace[1]['function'] . '()';
    }
  }
  else {
    $call['function'] = 'main()';
  }
  return $call;
}

870
function _fix_gpc_magic(&$item) {
Dries's avatar
Dries committed
871
  if (is_array($item)) {
Kjartan's avatar
Kjartan committed
872 873 874
    array_walk($item, '_fix_gpc_magic');
  }
  else {
Kjartan's avatar
Kjartan committed
875
    $item = stripslashes($item);
876 877 878
  }
}

879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890 891 892 893 894 895 896
/**
 * Helper function to strip slashes from $_FILES skipping over the tmp_name keys
 * since PHP generates single backslashes for file paths on Windows systems.
 *
 * tmp_name does not have backslashes added see
 * http://php.net/manual/en/features.file-upload.php#42280
 */
function _fix_gpc_magic_files(&$item, $key) {
  if ($key != 'tmp_name') {
    if (is_array($item)) {
      array_walk($item, '_fix_gpc_magic_files');
    }
    else {
      $item = stripslashes($item);
    }
  }
}

897
/**
898
 * Fix double-escaping problems caused by "magic quotes" in some PHP installations.
899
 */
900
function fix_gpc_magic() {
901
  static $fixed = FALSE;
902
  if (!$fixed && ini_get('magic_quotes_gpc')) {
Dries's avatar
Dries committed
903 904 905 906
    array_walk($_GET, '_fix_gpc_magic');
    array_walk($_POST, '_fix_gpc_magic');
    array_walk($_COOKIE, '_fix_gpc_magic');
    array_walk($_REQUEST, '_fix_gpc_magic');
907
    array_walk($_FILES, '_fix_gpc_magic_files');
908
    $fixed = TRUE;
Dries's avatar
Dries committed
909
  }
910 911
}

912
/**
913
 * Translate strings to the page language or a given language.
914
 *
915
 * Human-readable text that will be displayed somewhere within a page should
916
 * be run through the t() function.
917 918 919 920 921 922 923 924 925 926 927 928 929 930 931 932 933 934
 *
 * Examples:
 * @code
 *   if (!$info || !$info['extension']) {
 *     form_set_error('picture_upload', t('The uploaded file was not an image.'));
 *   }
 *
 *   $form['submit'] = array(
 *     '#type' => 'submit',
 *     '#value' => t('Log in'),
 *   );
 * @endcode
 *
 * Any text within t() can be extracted by translators and changed into
 * the equivalent text in their native language.
 *
 * Special variables called "placeholders" are used to signal dynamic
 * information in a string which should not be translated. Placeholders
935 936
 * can also be used for text that may change from time to time (such as
 * link paths) to be changed without requiring updates to translations.
937 938 939 940 941 942 943 944 945 946 947 948
 *
 * For example:
 * @code
 *   $output = t('There are currently %members and %visitors online.', array(
 *     '%members' => format_plural($total_users, '1 user', '@count users'),
 *     '%visitors' => format_plural($guests->count, '1 guest', '@count guests')));
 * @endcode
 *
 * There are three styles of placeholders:
 * - !variable, which indicates that the text should be inserted as-is. This is
 *   useful for inserting variables into things like e-mail.
 *   @code
949
 *     $message[] = t("If you don't want to receive such e-mails, you can change your settings at !url.", array('!url' => url("user/$account->uid", array('absolute' => TRUE))));
950 951
 *   @endcode
 *
952 953 954
 * - @variable, which indicates that the text should be run through
 *   check_plain, to escape HTML characters. Use this for any output that's
 *   displayed within a Drupal page.
955
 *   @code
956
 *     drupal_set_title($title = t("@name's blog", array('@name' => $account->name)), PASS_THROUGH);
957 958
 *   @endcode
 *
959 960 961
 * - %variable, which indicates that the string should be HTML escaped and
 *   highlighted with theme_placeholder() which shows up by default as
 *   <em>emphasized</em>.
962
 *   @code
963
 *     $message = t('%name-from sent %name-to an e-mail.', array('%name-from' => $user->name, '%name-to' => $account->name));
964 965
 *   @endcode
 *
966
 * When using t(), try to put entire sentences and strings in one t() call.
967 968 969 970
 * This makes it easier for translators, as it provides context as to what
 * each word refers to. HTML markup within translation strings is allowed, but
 * should be avoided if possible. The exception are embedded links; link
 * titles add a context for translators, so should be kept in the main string.
971
 *
972
 * Here is an example of incorrect usage of t():
973 974 975 976 977 978
 * @code
 *   $output .= t('<p>Go to the @contact-page.</p>', array('@contact-page' => l(t('contact page'), 'contact')));
 * @endcode
 *
 * Here is an example of t() used correctly:
 * @code
979
 *   $output .= '<p>' . t('Go to the <a href="@contact-page">contact page</a>.', array('@contact-page' => url('contact'))) . '</p>';
980 981
 * @endcode
 *
982
 * Avoid escaping quotation marks wherever possible.
983 984 985 986 987 988 989
 *
 * Incorrect:
 * @code
 *   $output .= t('Don\'t click me.');
 * @endcode
 *
 * Correct:
990
 * @code
991
 *   $output .= t("Don't click me.");
992
 * @endcode
993
 *
994 995 996 997 998 999 1000 1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020 1021 1022 1023 1024 1025 1026 1027 1028 1029 1030 1031 1032 1033 1034
 * Because t() is designed for handling code-based strings, in almost all
 * cases, the actual string and not a variable must be passed through t().
 *
 * Extraction of translations is done based on the strings contained in t()
 * calls. If a variable is passed through t(), the content of the variable
 * cannot be extracted from the file for translation.
 *
 * Incorrect:
 * @code
 *   $message = 'An error occurred.';
 *   drupal_set_message(t($message), 'error');
 *   $output .= t($message);
 * @endcode
 *
 * Correct:
 * @code
 *   $message = t('An error occurred.');
 *   drupal_set_message($message, 'error');
 *   $output .= $message;
 * @endcode
 *
 * The only case in which variables can be passed safely through t() is when
 * code-based versions of the same strings will be passed through t() (or
 * otherwise extracted) elsewhere.
 *
 * In some cases, modules may include strings in code that can't use t()
 * calls. For example, a module may use an external PHP application that
 * produces strings that are loaded into variables in Drupal for output.
 * In these cases, module authors may include a dummy file that passes the
 * relevant strings through t(). This approach will allow the strings to be
 * extracted.
 *
 * Sample external (non-Drupal) code:
 * @code
 *   class Time {
 *     public $yesterday = 'Yesterday';
 *     public $today = 'Today';
 *     public $tomorrow = 'Tomorrow';
 *   }
 * @endcode
 *
1035
 * Sample dummy file.
1036 1037 1038 1039 1040 1041 1042 1043 1044 1045 1046 1047 1048 1049 1050 1051 1052 1053 1054 1055 1056 1057 1058 1059 1060 1061 1062 1063 1064 1065 1066 1067 1068 1069 1070 1071 1072 1073 1074 1075 1076 1077 1078 1079 1080 1081 1082 1083 1084 1085 1086
 * @code
 *   // Dummy function included in example.potx.inc.
 *   function example_potx() {
 *     $strings = array(
 *       t('Yesterday'),
 *       t('Today'),
 *       t('Tomorrow'),
 *     );
 *     // No return value needed, since this is a dummy function.
 *   }
 * @endcode
 *
 * Having passed strings through t() in a dummy function, it is then
 * okay to pass variables through t().
 *
 * Correct (if a dummy file was used):
 * @code
 *   $time = new Time();
 *   $output .= t($time->today);
 * @endcode
 *
 * However tempting it is, custom data from user input or other non-code
 * sources should not be passed through t(). Doing so leads to the following
 * problems and errors:
 *  - The t() system doesn't support updates to existing strings. When user
 *    data is updated, the next time it's passed through t() a new record is
 *    created instead of an update. The database bloats over time and any
 *    existing translations are orphaned with each update.
 *  - The t() system assumes any data it receives is in English. User data may
 *    be in another language, producing translation errors.
 *  - The "Built-in interface" text group in the locale system is used to
 *    produce translations for storage in .po files. When non-code strings are
 *    passed through t(), they are added to this text group, which is rendered
 *    inaccurate since it is a mix of actual interface strings and various user
 *    input strings of uncertain origin.
 *
 * Incorrect:
 * @code
 *   $item = item_load();
 *   $output .= check_plain(t($item['title']));
 * @endcode
 *
 * Instead, translation of these data can be done through the locale system,
 * either directly or through helper functions provided by contributed
 * modules.
 * @see hook_locale()
 *
 * During installation, st() is used in place of t(). Code that may be called
 * during installation or during normal operation should use the get_t()
 * helper function.
 * @see st()
1087 1088
 * @see get_t()
 *
1089
 * @param $string
1090
 *   A string containing the English string to translate.
1091 1092
 * @param $args
 *   An associative array of replacements to make after translation. Incidences
1093 1094
 *   of any key in this array are replaced with the corresponding value. Based
 *   on the first character of the key, the value is escaped and/or themed:
1095 1096 1097 1098
 *    - !variable: inserted as is
 *    - @variable: escape plain text to HTML (check_plain)
 *    - %variable: escape text and theme as a placeholder for user-submitted
 *      content (check_plain + theme_placeholder)
1099
 * @param $langcode
1100 1101
 *   Optional language code to translate to a language other than what is used
 *   to display the page.
1102 1103
 * @return
 *   The translated string.
1104
 */
1105
function t($string, $args = array(), $langcode = NULL) {
1106
  global $language;
1107 1108
  static $custom_strings;

1109
  if (!isset($langcode)) {
1110
    $langcode = isset($language->language) ? $language->language : 'en';
1111
  }
1112

1113 1114 1115 1116
  // First, check for an array of customized strings. If present, use the array
  // *instead of* database lookups. This is a high performance way to provide a
  // handful of string replacements. See settings.php for examples.
  // Cache the $custom_strings variable to improve performance.
1117
  if (!isset($custom_strings[$langcode])) {
1118
    $custom_strings[$langcode] = variable_get('locale_custom_strings_' . $langcode, array());
1119 1120
  }
  // Custom strings work for English too, even if locale module is disabled.
1121 1122
  if (isset($custom_strings[$langcode][$string])) {
    $string = $custom_strings[$langcode][$string];
1123 1124
  }
  // Translate with locale module if enabled.
1125 1126
  elseif (function_exists('locale') && $langcode != 'en') {
    $string = locale($string, $langcode);
1127
  }
1128
  if (empty($args)) {
1129
    return $string;
Kjartan's avatar
Kjartan committed
1130 1131
  }
  else {
1132
    // Transform arguments before inserting them.
1133
    foreach ($args as $key => $value) {
1134 1135
      switch ($key[0]) {
        case '@':
1136
          // Escaped only.
1137
          $args[$key] = check_plain($value);
1138
          break;
1139

1140 1141
        case '%':
        default:
1142
          // Escaped and placeholder.
1143 1144
          $args[$key] = theme('placeholder', $value);
          break;
1145

1146
        case '!':
1147
          // Pass-through.
1148 1149
      }
    }
1150 1151
    return strtr($string, $args);
  }
1152 1153
}

1154
/**
1155
 * @defgroup validation Input validation
1156
 * @{
1157
 * Functions to validate user input.
1158 1159
 */

1160
/**
1161 1162 1163
 * Verify the syntax of the given e-mail address.
 *
 * Empty e-mail addresses are allowed. See RFC 2822 for details.
1164
 *
1165
 * @param $mail
1166
 *   A string containing an e-mail address.
1167
 * @return
1168
 *   TRUE if the address is in a valid format.
1169
 */