TestBase.php 48 KB
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<?php

/**
 * @file
 * Definition of Drupal\simpletest\TestBase.
 */

namespace Drupal\simpletest;

use Drupal\Core\Database\Database;
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use Drupal\Component\Utility\Settings;
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use Drupal\Core\Config\ConfigImporter;
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use Drupal\Core\Config\StorageComparer;
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use Drupal\Core\DependencyInjection\ContainerBuilder;
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use Drupal\Core\Database\ConnectionNotDefinedException;
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use Drupal\Core\Config\StorageInterface;
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use Drupal\Core\DrupalKernel;
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use Drupal\Core\Language\Language;
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use ReflectionMethod;
use ReflectionObject;

/**
 * Base class for Drupal tests.
 *
 * Do not extend this class directly, use either Drupal\simpletest\WebTestBaseBase
 * or Drupal\simpletest\UnitTestBaseBase.
 */
abstract class TestBase {
  /**
   * The test run ID.
   *
   * @var string
   */
  protected $testId;

  /**
   * The database prefix of this test run.
   *
   * @var string
   */
  protected $databasePrefix = NULL;

  /**
   * The original file directory, before it was changed for testing purposes.
   *
   * @var string
   */
  protected $originalFileDirectory = NULL;

  /**
   * Time limit for the test.
   */
  protected $timeLimit = 500;

  /**
   * Current results of this test case.
   *
   * @var Array
   */
  public $results = array(
    '#pass' => 0,
    '#fail' => 0,
    '#exception' => 0,
    '#debug' => 0,
  );

  /**
   * Assertions thrown in that test case.
   *
   * @var Array
   */
  protected $assertions = array();

  /**
   * This class is skipped when looking for the source of an assertion.
   *
   * When displaying which function an assert comes from, it's not too useful
   * to see "WebTestBase->drupalLogin()', we would like to see the test
   * that called it. So we need to skip the classes defining these helper
   * methods.
   */
  protected $skipClasses = array(__CLASS__ => TRUE);

  /**
   * Flag to indicate whether the test has been set up.
   *
   * The setUp() method isolates the test from the parent Drupal site by
   * creating a random prefix for the database and setting up a clean file
   * storage directory. The tearDown() method then cleans up this test
   * environment. We must ensure that setUp() has been run. Otherwise,
   * tearDown() will act on the parent Drupal site rather than the test
   * environment, destroying live data.
   */
  protected $setup = FALSE;

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  protected $setupDatabasePrefix = FALSE;

  protected $setupEnvironment = FALSE;

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  /**
   * TRUE if verbose debugging is enabled.
   *
   * @var boolean
   */
  protected $verbose = FALSE;

  /**
   * Incrementing identifier for verbose output filenames.
   *
   * @var integer
   */
  protected $verboseId = 0;

  /**
   * Safe class name for use in verbose output filenames.
   *
   * Namespaces separator (\) replaced with _.
   *
   * @var string
   */
  protected $verboseClassName;

  /**
   * Directory where verbose output files are put.
   *
   * @var string
   */
  protected $verboseDirectory;

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  /**
   * The original database prefix when running inside Simpletest.
   *
   * @var string
   */
  protected $originalPrefix;

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  /**
   * URL to the verbose output file directory.
   *
   * @var string
   */
  protected $verboseDirectoryUrl;

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  /**
   * The settings array.
   */
  protected $originalSettings;

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  /**
   * The public file directory for the test environment.
   *
   * This is set in TestBase::prepareEnvironment().
   *
   * @var string
   */
  protected $public_files_directory;

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  /**
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   * Whether to die in case any test assertion fails.
   *
   * @see run-tests.sh
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   *
   * @var boolean
   */
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  public $dieOnFail = FALSE;
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  /**
   * The dependency injection container used in the test.
   *
   * @var \Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerInterface
   */
  protected $container;

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  /**
   * The config importer that can used in a test.
   *
   * @var \Drupal\Core\Config\ConfigImporter
   */
  protected $configImporter;

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  /**
   * A list of unique strings generated by randomString().
   *
   * @var array
   */
  protected $randomStrings = array();

  /**
   * A list of unique names generated by randomName().
   *
   * @var array
   */
  protected $randomNames = array();

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  /**
   * Constructor for Test.
   *
   * @param $test_id
   *   Tests with the same id are reported together.
   */
  public function __construct($test_id = NULL) {
    $this->testId = $test_id;
  }

  /**
   * Checks the matching requirements for Test.
   *
   * @return
   *   Array of errors containing a list of unmet requirements.
   */
  protected function checkRequirements() {
    return array();
  }

  /**
   * Internal helper: stores the assert.
   *
   * @param $status
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   *   Can be 'pass', 'fail', 'exception', 'debug'.
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   *   TRUE is a synonym for 'pass', FALSE for 'fail'.
   * @param $message
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   *   (optional) A message to display with the assertion. Do not translate
   *   messages: use format_string() to embed variables in the message text, not
   *   t(). If left blank, a default message will be displayed.
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   * @param $group
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   *   (optional) The group this message is in, which is displayed in a column
   *   in test output. Use 'Debug' to indicate this is debugging output. Do not
   *   translate this string. Defaults to 'Other'; most tests do not override
   *   this default.
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   * @param $caller
   *   By default, the assert comes from a function whose name starts with
   *   'test'. Instead, you can specify where this assert originates from
   *   by passing in an associative array as $caller. Key 'file' is
   *   the name of the source file, 'line' is the line number and 'function'
   *   is the caller function itself.
   */
  protected function assert($status, $message = '', $group = 'Other', array $caller = NULL) {
    // Convert boolean status to string status.
    if (is_bool($status)) {
      $status = $status ? 'pass' : 'fail';
    }

    // Increment summary result counter.
    $this->results['#' . $status]++;

    // Get the function information about the call to the assertion method.
    if (!$caller) {
      $caller = $this->getAssertionCall();
    }

    // Creation assertion array that can be displayed while tests are running.
    $this->assertions[] = $assertion = array(
      'test_id' => $this->testId,
      'test_class' => get_class($this),
      'status' => $status,
      'message' => $message,
      'message_group' => $group,
      'function' => $caller['function'],
      'line' => $caller['line'],
      'file' => $caller['file'],
    );

    // Store assertion for display after the test has completed.
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    self::getDatabaseConnection()
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      ->insert('simpletest')
      ->fields($assertion)
      ->execute();

    // We do not use a ternary operator here to allow a breakpoint on
    // test failure.
    if ($status == 'pass') {
      return TRUE;
    }
    else {
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      if ($this->dieOnFail && ($status == 'fail' || $status == 'exception')) {
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        exit(1);
      }
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      return FALSE;
    }
  }

  /**
   * Store an assertion from outside the testing context.
   *
   * This is useful for inserting assertions that can only be recorded after
   * the test case has been destroyed, such as PHP fatal errors. The caller
   * information is not automatically gathered since the caller is most likely
   * inserting the assertion on behalf of other code. In all other respects
   * the method behaves just like Drupal\simpletest\TestBase::assert() in terms
   * of storing the assertion.
   *
   * @return
   *   Message ID of the stored assertion.
   *
   * @see Drupal\simpletest\TestBase::assert()
   * @see Drupal\simpletest\TestBase::deleteAssert()
   */
  public static function insertAssert($test_id, $test_class, $status, $message = '', $group = 'Other', array $caller = array()) {
    // Convert boolean status to string status.
    if (is_bool($status)) {
      $status = $status ? 'pass' : 'fail';
    }

    $caller += array(
      'function' => t('Unknown'),
      'line' => 0,
      'file' => t('Unknown'),
    );

    $assertion = array(
      'test_id' => $test_id,
      'test_class' => $test_class,
      'status' => $status,
      'message' => $message,
      'message_group' => $group,
      'function' => $caller['function'],
      'line' => $caller['line'],
      'file' => $caller['file'],
    );

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    return self::getDatabaseConnection()
      ->insert('simpletest')
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      ->fields($assertion)
      ->execute();
  }

  /**
   * Delete an assertion record by message ID.
   *
   * @param $message_id
   *   Message ID of the assertion to delete.
   * @return
   *   TRUE if the assertion was deleted, FALSE otherwise.
   *
   * @see Drupal\simpletest\TestBase::insertAssert()
   */
  public static function deleteAssert($message_id) {
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    return (bool) self::getDatabaseConnection()
      ->delete('simpletest')
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      ->condition('message_id', $message_id)
      ->execute();
  }

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  /**
   * Returns the database connection to the site running Simpletest.
   *
   * @return Drupal\Core\Database\Connection
   *   The database connection to use for inserting assertions.
   */
  public static function getDatabaseConnection() {
    try {
      $connection = Database::getConnection('default', 'simpletest_original_default');
    }
    catch (ConnectionNotDefinedException $e) {
      // If the test was not set up, the simpletest_original_default
      // connection does not exist.
      $connection = Database::getConnection('default', 'default');
    }
    return $connection;
  }

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  /**
   * Cycles through backtrace until the first non-assertion method is found.
   *
   * @return
   *   Array representing the true caller.
   */
  protected function getAssertionCall() {
    $backtrace = debug_backtrace();

    // The first element is the call. The second element is the caller.
    // We skip calls that occurred in one of the methods of our base classes
    // or in an assertion function.
   while (($caller = $backtrace[1]) &&
         ((isset($caller['class']) && isset($this->skipClasses[$caller['class']])) ||
           substr($caller['function'], 0, 6) == 'assert')) {
      // We remove that call.
      array_shift($backtrace);
    }

    return _drupal_get_last_caller($backtrace);
  }

  /**
   * Check to see if a value is not false (not an empty string, 0, NULL, or FALSE).
   *
   * @param $value
   *   The value on which the assertion is to be done.
   * @param $message
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   *   (optional) A message to display with the assertion. Do not translate
   *   messages: use format_string() to embed variables in the message text, not
   *   t(). If left blank, a default message will be displayed.
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   * @param $group
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   *   (optional) The group this message is in, which is displayed in a column
   *   in test output. Use 'Debug' to indicate this is debugging output. Do not
   *   translate this string. Defaults to 'Other'; most tests do not override
   *   this default.
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   * @return
   *   TRUE if the assertion succeeded, FALSE otherwise.
   */
  protected function assertTrue($value, $message = '', $group = 'Other') {
    return $this->assert((bool) $value, $message ? $message : t('Value @value is TRUE.', array('@value' => var_export($value, TRUE))), $group);
  }

  /**
   * Check to see if a value is false (an empty string, 0, NULL, or FALSE).
   *
   * @param $value
   *   The value on which the assertion is to be done.
   * @param $message
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   *   (optional) A message to display with the assertion. Do not translate
   *   messages: use format_string() to embed variables in the message text, not
   *   t(). If left blank, a default message will be displayed.
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   * @param $group
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   *   (optional) The group this message is in, which is displayed in a column
   *   in test output. Use 'Debug' to indicate this is debugging output. Do not
   *   translate this string. Defaults to 'Other'; most tests do not override
   *   this default.
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   * @return
   *   TRUE if the assertion succeeded, FALSE otherwise.
   */
  protected function assertFalse($value, $message = '', $group = 'Other') {
    return $this->assert(!$value, $message ? $message : t('Value @value is FALSE.', array('@value' => var_export($value, TRUE))), $group);
  }

  /**
   * Check to see if a value is NULL.
   *
   * @param $value
   *   The value on which the assertion is to be done.
   * @param $message
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   *   (optional) A message to display with the assertion. Do not translate
   *   messages: use format_string() to embed variables in the message text, not
   *   t(). If left blank, a default message will be displayed.
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   * @param $group
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   *   (optional) The group this message is in, which is displayed in a column
   *   in test output. Use 'Debug' to indicate this is debugging output. Do not
   *   translate this string. Defaults to 'Other'; most tests do not override
   *   this default.
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   * @return
   *   TRUE if the assertion succeeded, FALSE otherwise.
   */
  protected function assertNull($value, $message = '', $group = 'Other') {
    return $this->assert(!isset($value), $message ? $message : t('Value @value is NULL.', array('@value' => var_export($value, TRUE))), $group);
  }

  /**
   * Check to see if a value is not NULL.
   *
   * @param $value
   *   The value on which the assertion is to be done.
   * @param $message
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   *   (optional) A message to display with the assertion. Do not translate
   *   messages: use format_string() to embed variables in the message text, not
   *   t(). If left blank, a default message will be displayed.
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   * @param $group
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   *   (optional) The group this message is in, which is displayed in a column
   *   in test output. Use 'Debug' to indicate this is debugging output. Do not
   *   translate this string. Defaults to 'Other'; most tests do not override
   *   this default.
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   * @return
   *   TRUE if the assertion succeeded, FALSE otherwise.
   */
  protected function assertNotNull($value, $message = '', $group = 'Other') {
    return $this->assert(isset($value), $message ? $message : t('Value @value is not NULL.', array('@value' => var_export($value, TRUE))), $group);
  }

  /**
   * Check to see if two values are equal.
   *
   * @param $first
   *   The first value to check.
   * @param $second
   *   The second value to check.
   * @param $message
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   *   (optional) A message to display with the assertion. Do not translate
   *   messages: use format_string() to embed variables in the message text, not
   *   t(). If left blank, a default message will be displayed.
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   * @param $group
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   *   (optional) The group this message is in, which is displayed in a column
   *   in test output. Use 'Debug' to indicate this is debugging output. Do not
   *   translate this string. Defaults to 'Other'; most tests do not override
   *   this default.
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   * @return
   *   TRUE if the assertion succeeded, FALSE otherwise.
   */
  protected function assertEqual($first, $second, $message = '', $group = 'Other') {
    return $this->assert($first == $second, $message ? $message : t('Value @first is equal to value @second.', array('@first' => var_export($first, TRUE), '@second' => var_export($second, TRUE))), $group);
  }

  /**
   * Check to see if two values are not equal.
   *
   * @param $first
   *   The first value to check.
   * @param $second
   *   The second value to check.
   * @param $message
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   *   (optional) A message to display with the assertion. Do not translate
   *   messages: use format_string() to embed variables in the message text, not
   *   t(). If left blank, a default message will be displayed.
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   * @param $group
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   *   (optional) The group this message is in, which is displayed in a column
   *   in test output. Use 'Debug' to indicate this is debugging output. Do not
   *   translate this string. Defaults to 'Other'; most tests do not override
   *   this default.
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   * @return
   *   TRUE if the assertion succeeded, FALSE otherwise.
   */
  protected function assertNotEqual($first, $second, $message = '', $group = 'Other') {
    return $this->assert($first != $second, $message ? $message : t('Value @first is not equal to value @second.', array('@first' => var_export($first, TRUE), '@second' => var_export($second, TRUE))), $group);
  }

  /**
   * Check to see if two values are identical.
   *
   * @param $first
   *   The first value to check.
   * @param $second
   *   The second value to check.
   * @param $message
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   *   (optional) A message to display with the assertion. Do not translate
   *   messages: use format_string() to embed variables in the message text, not
   *   t(). If left blank, a default message will be displayed.
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   * @param $group
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   *   (optional) The group this message is in, which is displayed in a column
   *   in test output. Use 'Debug' to indicate this is debugging output. Do not
   *   translate this string. Defaults to 'Other'; most tests do not override
   *   this default.
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   * @return
   *   TRUE if the assertion succeeded, FALSE otherwise.
   */
  protected function assertIdentical($first, $second, $message = '', $group = 'Other') {
    return $this->assert($first === $second, $message ? $message : t('Value @first is identical to value @second.', array('@first' => var_export($first, TRUE), '@second' => var_export($second, TRUE))), $group);
  }

  /**
   * Check to see if two values are not identical.
   *
   * @param $first
   *   The first value to check.
   * @param $second
   *   The second value to check.
   * @param $message
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   *   (optional) A message to display with the assertion. Do not translate
   *   messages: use format_string() to embed variables in the message text, not
   *   t(). If left blank, a default message will be displayed.
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   * @param $group
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   *   (optional) The group this message is in, which is displayed in a column
   *   in test output. Use 'Debug' to indicate this is debugging output. Do not
   *   translate this string. Defaults to 'Other'; most tests do not override
   *   this default.
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   * @return
   *   TRUE if the assertion succeeded, FALSE otherwise.
   */
  protected function assertNotIdentical($first, $second, $message = '', $group = 'Other') {
    return $this->assert($first !== $second, $message ? $message : t('Value @first is not identical to value @second.', array('@first' => var_export($first, TRUE), '@second' => var_export($second, TRUE))), $group);
  }

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  /**
   * Checks to see if two objects are identical.
   *
   * @param object $object1
   *   The first object to check.
   * @param object $object2
   *   The second object to check.
   * @param $message
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   *   (optional) A message to display with the assertion. Do not translate
   *   messages: use format_string() to embed variables in the message text, not
   *   t(). If left blank, a default message will be displayed.
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   * @param $group
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   *   (optional) The group this message is in, which is displayed in a column
   *   in test output. Use 'Debug' to indicate this is debugging output. Do not
   *   translate this string. Defaults to 'Other'; most tests do not override
   *   this default.
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   *
   * @return
   *   TRUE if the assertion succeeded, FALSE otherwise.
   */
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  protected function assertIdenticalObject($object1, $object2, $message = '', $group = 'Other') {
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    $message = $message ?: format_string('!object1 is identical to !object2', array(
      '!object1' => var_export($object1, TRUE),
      '!object2' => var_export($object2, TRUE),
    ));
    $identical = TRUE;
    foreach ($object1 as $key => $value) {
      $identical = $identical && isset($object2->$key) && $object2->$key === $value;
    }
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    return $this->assertTrue($identical, $message, $group);
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  }



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  /**
   * Fire an assertion that is always positive.
   *
   * @param $message
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   *   (optional) A message to display with the assertion. Do not translate
   *   messages: use format_string() to embed variables in the message text, not
   *   t(). If left blank, a default message will be displayed.
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   * @param $group
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   *   (optional) The group this message is in, which is displayed in a column
   *   in test output. Use 'Debug' to indicate this is debugging output. Do not
   *   translate this string. Defaults to 'Other'; most tests do not override
   *   this default.
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   * @return
   *   TRUE.
   */
  protected function pass($message = NULL, $group = 'Other') {
    return $this->assert(TRUE, $message, $group);
  }

  /**
   * Fire an assertion that is always negative.
   *
   * @param $message
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   *   (optional) A message to display with the assertion. Do not translate
   *   messages: use format_string() to embed variables in the message text, not
   *   t(). If left blank, a default message will be displayed.
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   * @param $group
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   *   (optional) The group this message is in, which is displayed in a column
   *   in test output. Use 'Debug' to indicate this is debugging output. Do not
   *   translate this string. Defaults to 'Other'; most tests do not override
   *   this default.
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   * @return
   *   FALSE.
   */
  protected function fail($message = NULL, $group = 'Other') {
    return $this->assert(FALSE, $message, $group);
  }

  /**
   * Fire an error assertion.
   *
   * @param $message
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   *   (optional) A message to display with the assertion. Do not translate
   *   messages: use format_string() to embed variables in the message text, not
   *   t(). If left blank, a default message will be displayed.
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   * @param $group
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   *   (optional) The group this message is in, which is displayed in a column
   *   in test output. Use 'Debug' to indicate this is debugging output. Do not
   *   translate this string. Defaults to 'Other'; most tests do not override
   *   this default.
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   * @param $caller
   *   The caller of the error.
   * @return
   *   FALSE.
   */
  protected function error($message = '', $group = 'Other', array $caller = NULL) {
    if ($group == 'User notice') {
      // Since 'User notice' is set by trigger_error() which is used for debug
      // set the message to a status of 'debug'.
      return $this->assert('debug', $message, 'Debug', $caller);
    }

    return $this->assert('exception', $message, $group, $caller);
  }

  /**
   * Logs verbose message in a text file.
   *
   * The a link to the vebose message will be placed in the test results via
   * as a passing assertion with the text '[verbose message]'.
   *
   * @param $message
   *   The verbose message to be stored.
   *
   * @see simpletest_verbose()
   */
  protected function verbose($message) {
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    // Do nothing if verbose debugging is disabled.
    if (!$this->verbose) {
      return;
    }

    $message = '<hr />ID #' . $this->verboseId . ' (<a href="' . $this->verboseClassName . '-' . ($this->verboseId - 1) . '.html">Previous</a> | <a href="' . $this->verboseClassName . '-' . ($this->verboseId + 1) . '.html">Next</a>)<hr />' . $message;
    $verbose_filename = $this->verboseDirectory . '/' . $this->verboseClassName . '-' . $this->verboseId . '.html';
    if (file_put_contents($verbose_filename, $message, FILE_APPEND)) {
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      $url = $this->verboseDirectoryUrl . '/' . $this->verboseClassName . '-' . $this->verboseId . '.html';
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      // Not using l() to avoid invoking the theme system, so that unit tests
      // can use verbose() as well.
      $url = '<a href="' . $url . '" target="_blank">' . t('Verbose message') . '</a>';
      $this->error($url, 'User notice');
684
    }
685
    $this->verboseId++;
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  }

  /**
   * Run all tests in this class.
   *
   * Regardless of whether $methods are passed or not, only method names
   * starting with "test" are executed.
   *
   * @param $methods
   *   (optional) A list of method names in the test case class to run; e.g.,
   *   array('testFoo', 'testBar'). By default, all methods of the class are
   *   taken into account, but it can be useful to only run a few selected test
   *   methods during debugging.
   */
  public function run(array $methods = array()) {
701
    TestServiceProvider::$currentTest = $this;
702 703
    $simpletest_config = config('simpletest.settings');

704
    $class = get_class($this);
705
    if ($simpletest_config->get('verbose')) {
706 707 708
      // Initialize verbose debugging.
      $this->verbose = TRUE;
      $this->verboseDirectory = variable_get('file_public_path', conf_path() . '/files') . '/simpletest/verbose';
709
      $this->verboseDirectoryUrl = file_create_url($this->verboseDirectory);
710 711 712 713 714
      if (file_prepare_directory($this->verboseDirectory, FILE_CREATE_DIRECTORY) && !file_exists($this->verboseDirectory . '/.htaccess')) {
        file_put_contents($this->verboseDirectory . '/.htaccess', "<IfModule mod_expires.c>\nExpiresActive Off\n</IfModule>\n");
      }
      $this->verboseClassName = str_replace("\\", "_", $class);
    }
715 716
    // HTTP auth settings (<username>:<password>) for the simpletest browser
    // when sending requests to the test site.
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    $this->httpauth_method = (int) $simpletest_config->get('httpauth.method');
    $username = $simpletest_config->get('httpauth.username');
    $password = $simpletest_config->get('httpauth.password');
    if (!empty($username) && !empty($password)) {
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      $this->httpauth_credentials = $username . ':' . $password;
    }

    set_error_handler(array($this, 'errorHandler'));
    // Iterate through all the methods in this class, unless a specific list of
    // methods to run was passed.
    $class_methods = get_class_methods($class);
    if ($methods) {
      $class_methods = array_intersect($class_methods, $methods);
    }
    $missing_requirements = $this->checkRequirements();
    if (!empty($missing_requirements)) {
      $missing_requirements_object = new ReflectionObject($this);
      $caller = array(
        'file' => $missing_requirements_object->getFileName(),
      );
      foreach ($missing_requirements as $missing_requirement) {
        TestBase::insertAssert($this->testId, $class, FALSE, $missing_requirement, 'Requirements check.', $caller);
      }
    }
    else {
      foreach ($class_methods as $method) {
        // If the current method starts with "test", run it - it's a test.
        if (strtolower(substr($method, 0, 4)) == 'test') {
          // Insert a fail record. This will be deleted on completion to ensure
          // that testing completed.
          $method_info = new ReflectionMethod($class, $method);
          $caller = array(
            'file' => $method_info->getFileName(),
            'line' => $method_info->getStartLine(),
            'function' => $class . '->' . $method . '()',
          );
          $completion_check_id = TestBase::insertAssert($this->testId, $class, FALSE, t('The test did not complete due to a fatal error.'), 'Completion check', $caller);
          $this->setUp();
          if ($this->setup) {
            try {
              $this->$method();
              // Finish up.
            }
760
            catch (\Exception $e) {
761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772
              $this->exceptionHandler($e);
            }
            $this->tearDown();
          }
          else {
            $this->fail(t("The test cannot be executed because it has not been set up properly."));
          }
          // Remove the completion check record.
          TestBase::deleteAssert($completion_check_id);
        }
      }
    }
773
    TestServiceProvider::$currentTest = NULL;
774 775 776 777 778
    // Clear out the error messages and restore error handler.
    drupal_get_messages();
    restore_error_handler();
  }

779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819 820
  /**
   * Generates a database prefix for running tests.
   *
   * The database prefix is used by prepareEnvironment() to setup a public files
   * directory for the test to be run, which also contains the PHP error log,
   * which is written to in case of a fatal error. Since that directory is based
   * on the database prefix, all tests (even unit tests) need to have one, in
   * order to access and read the error log.
   *
   * @see TestBase::prepareEnvironment()
   *
   * The generated database table prefix is used for the Drupal installation
   * being performed for the test. It is also used as user agent HTTP header
   * value by the cURL-based browser of DrupalWebTestCase, which is sent to the
   * Drupal installation of the test. During early Drupal bootstrap, the user
   * agent HTTP header is parsed, and if it matches, all database queries use
   * the database table prefix that has been generated here.
   *
   * @see WebTestBase::curlInitialize()
   * @see drupal_valid_test_ua()
   * @see WebTestBase::setUp()
   */
  protected function prepareDatabasePrefix() {
    $this->databasePrefix = 'simpletest' . mt_rand(1000, 1000000);

    // As soon as the database prefix is set, the test might start to execute.
    // All assertions as well as the SimpleTest batch operations are associated
    // with the testId, so the database prefix has to be associated with it.
    db_update('simpletest_test_id')
      ->fields(array('last_prefix' => $this->databasePrefix))
      ->condition('test_id', $this->testId)
      ->execute();
  }

  /**
   * Changes the database connection to the prefixed one.
   *
   * @see WebTestBase::setUp()
   */
  protected function changeDatabasePrefix() {
    if (empty($this->databasePrefix)) {
      $this->prepareDatabasePrefix();
821 822 823 824 825 826
      // If $this->prepareDatabasePrefix() failed to work, return without
      // setting $this->setupDatabasePrefix to TRUE, so setUp() methods will
      // know to bail out.
      if (empty($this->databasePrefix)) {
        return;
      }
827 828 829 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837
    }

    // Clone the current connection and replace the current prefix.
    $connection_info = Database::getConnectionInfo('default');
    Database::renameConnection('default', 'simpletest_original_default');
    foreach ($connection_info as $target => $value) {
      $connection_info[$target]['prefix'] = array(
        'default' => $value['prefix']['default'] . $this->databasePrefix,
      );
    }
    Database::addConnectionInfo('default', 'default', $connection_info['default']);
838

839 840 841 842 843 844 845 846
    // Additionally override global $databases, since the installer does not use
    // the Database connection info.
    // @see install_verify_database_settings()
    // @see install_database_errors()
    // @todo Fix installer to use Database connection info.
    global $databases;
    $databases['default']['default'] = $connection_info['default'];

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    // Indicate the database prefix was set up correctly.
    $this->setupDatabasePrefix = TRUE;
849 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 858 859 860 861 862 863
  }

  /**
   * Prepares the current environment for running the test.
   *
   * Backups various current environment variables and resets them, so they do
   * not interfere with the Drupal site installation in which tests are executed
   * and can be restored in TestBase::tearDown().
   *
   * Also sets up new resources for the testing environment, such as the public
   * filesystem and configuration directories.
   *
   * @see TestBase::tearDown()
   */
  protected function prepareEnvironment() {
864
    global $user, $conf;
865
    $language_interface = language(Language::TYPE_INTERFACE);
866

867 868 869 870 871 872 873
    // When running the test runner within a test, back up the original database
    // prefix and re-set the new/nested prefix in drupal_valid_test_ua().
    if (drupal_valid_test_ua()) {
      $this->originalPrefix = drupal_valid_test_ua();
      drupal_valid_test_ua($this->databasePrefix);
    }

874
    // Backup current in-memory configuration.
875
    $this->originalSettings = settings()->getAll();
876 877 878 879 880
    $this->originalConf = $conf;

    // Backup statics and globals.
    $this->originalContainer = clone drupal_container();
    $this->originalLanguage = $language_interface;
881
    $this->originalConfigDirectories = $GLOBALS['config_directories'];
882 883 884
    if (isset($GLOBALS['theme_key'])) {
      $this->originalThemeKey = $GLOBALS['theme_key'];
    }
885
    $this->originalTheme = isset($GLOBALS['theme']) ? $GLOBALS['theme'] : NULL;
886 887 888 889

    // Save further contextual information.
    $this->originalFileDirectory = variable_get('file_public_path', conf_path() . '/files');
    $this->originalProfile = drupal_get_profile();
890
    $this->originalUser = isset($user) ? clone $user : NULL;
891 892 893

    // Ensure that the current session is not changed by the new environment.
    drupal_save_session(FALSE);
894 895 896
    // Run all tests as a anonymous user by default, web tests will replace that
    // during the test set up.
    $user = drupal_anonymous_user();
897 898 899 900 901 902 903 904 905 906 907 908 909 910 911

    // Save and clean the shutdown callbacks array because it is static cached
    // and will be changed by the test run. Otherwise it will contain callbacks
    // from both environments and the testing environment will try to call the
    // handlers defined by the original one.
    $callbacks = &drupal_register_shutdown_function();
    $this->originalShutdownCallbacks = $callbacks;
    $callbacks = array();

    // Create test directory ahead of installation so fatal errors and debug
    // information can be logged during installation process.
    // Use temporary files directory with the same prefix as the database.
    $this->public_files_directory = $this->originalFileDirectory . '/simpletest/' . substr($this->databasePrefix, 10);
    $this->private_files_directory = $this->public_files_directory . '/private';
    $this->temp_files_directory = $this->private_files_directory . '/temp';
912
    $this->translation_files_directory = $this->public_files_directory . '/translations';
913 914 915 916 917

    // Create the directories
    file_prepare_directory($this->public_files_directory, FILE_CREATE_DIRECTORY | FILE_MODIFY_PERMISSIONS);
    file_prepare_directory($this->private_files_directory, FILE_CREATE_DIRECTORY);
    file_prepare_directory($this->temp_files_directory, FILE_CREATE_DIRECTORY);
918
    file_prepare_directory($this->translation_files_directory, FILE_CREATE_DIRECTORY);
919 920
    $this->generatedTestFiles = FALSE;

921 922
    // Create and set new configuration directories.
    $this->prepareConfigDirectories();
923

924 925 926 927 928
    // Reset statics before the old container is replaced so that objects with a
    // __destruct() method still have access to it.
    // @todo: Remove once they have been converted to services.
    drupal_static_reset();

929
    // Reset and create a new service container.
930
    $this->container = new ContainerBuilder();
931 932 933
     // @todo Remove this once this class has no calls to t() and format_plural()
    $this->container->register('string_translation', 'Drupal\Core\StringTranslation\TranslationManager');

934
    \Drupal::setContainer($this->container);
935

936 937 938 939
    // Unset globals.
    unset($GLOBALS['theme_key']);
    unset($GLOBALS['theme']);

940 941 942 943 944 945 946 947
    // Log fatal errors.
    ini_set('log_errors', 1);
    ini_set('error_log', $this->public_files_directory . '/error.log');

    // Set the test information for use in other parts of Drupal.
    $test_info = &$GLOBALS['drupal_test_info'];
    $test_info['test_run_id'] = $this->databasePrefix;
    $test_info['in_child_site'] = FALSE;
948 949 950

    // Indicate the environment was set up correctly.
    $this->setupEnvironment = TRUE;
951 952
  }

953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 969 970 971 972 973 974 975 976 977 978
  /**
   * Create and set new configuration directories.
   *
   * The child site uses drupal_valid_test_ua() to adjust the config directory
   * paths to a test-prefix-specific directory within the public files
   * directory.
   *
   * @see config_get_config_directory()
   */
  protected function prepareConfigDirectories() {
    $GLOBALS['config_directories'] = array();
    $this->configDirectories = array();
    include_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/core/includes/install.inc';
    foreach (array(CONFIG_ACTIVE_DIRECTORY, CONFIG_STAGING_DIRECTORY) as $type) {
      // Assign the relative path to the global variable.
      $path = 'simpletest/' . substr($this->databasePrefix, 10) . '/config_' . $type;
      $GLOBALS['config_directories'][$type]['path'] = $path;
      // Ensure the directory can be created and is writeable.
      if (!install_ensure_config_directory($type)) {
        return FALSE;
      }
      // Provide the already resolved path for tests.
      $this->configDirectories[$type] = $this->originalFileDirectory . '/' . $path;
    }
  }

979 980 981
  /**
   * Rebuild drupal_container().
   *
982 983 984 985 986
   * Use this to build a new kernel and service container. For example, when the
   * list of enabled modules is changed via the internal browser, in which case
   * the test process still contains an old kernel and service container with an
   * old module list.
   *
987 988 989 990
   * @todo Fix http://drupal.org/node/1708692 so that module enable/disable
   *   changes are immediately reflected in drupal_container(). Until then,
   *   tests can invoke this workaround when requiring services from newly
   *   enabled modules to be immediately available in the same request.
991 992 993
   *
   * @see TestBase::prepareEnvironment()
   * @see TestBase::tearDown()
994 995
   */
  protected function rebuildContainer() {
996
    $this->kernel = new DrupalKernel('testing', drupal_classloader(), FALSE);
997
    $this->kernel->boot();
998 999
    // DrupalKernel replaces the container in drupal_container() with a
    // different object, so we need to replace the instance on this test class.
1000 1001 1002
    $this->container = drupal_container();
  }

1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009 1010 1011 1012
  /**
   * Deletes created files, database tables, and reverts all environment changes.
   *
   * This method needs to be invoked for both unit and integration tests.
   *
   * @see TestBase::prepareDatabasePrefix()
   * @see TestBase::changeDatabasePrefix()
   * @see TestBase::prepareEnvironment()
   */
  protected function tearDown() {
1013
    global $user, $conf;
1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020 1021 1022 1023 1024 1025 1026 1027 1028 1029 1030 1031 1032 1033 1034 1035 1036 1037 1038

    // Reset all static variables.
    // Unsetting static variables will potentially invoke destruct methods,
    // which might call into functions that prime statics and caches again.
    // In that case, all functions are still operating on the test environment,
    // which means they may need to access its filesystem and database.
    drupal_static_reset();

    // Ensure that TestBase::changeDatabasePrefix() has run and TestBase::$setup
    // was not tricked into TRUE, since the following code would delete the
    // entire parent site otherwise.
    if ($this->setupDatabasePrefix) {
      // Remove all prefixed tables.
      $connection_info = Database::getConnectionInfo('default');
      $tables = db_find_tables($connection_info['default']['prefix']['default'] . '%');
      $prefix_length = strlen($connection_info['default']['prefix']['default']);
      foreach ($tables as $table) {
        if (db_drop_table(substr($table, $prefix_length))) {
          unset($tables[$table]);
        }
      }
      if (!empty($tables)) {
        $this->fail('Failed to drop all prefixed tables.');
      }
    }
1039 1040 1041 1042

    // In case a fatal error occurred that was not in the test process read the
    // log to pick up any fatal errors.
    simpletest_log_read($this->testId, $this->databasePrefix, get_class($this), TRUE);
1043
    if (($container = drupal_container()) && $container->has('keyvalue')) {
1044
      $captured_emails = \Drupal::state()->get('system.test_email_collector') ?: array();
1045 1046 1047 1048 1049
      $emailCount = count($captured_emails);
      if ($emailCount) {
        $message = format_plural($emailCount, '1 e-mail was sent during this test.', '@count e-mails were sent during this test.');
        $this->pass($message, t('E-mail'));
      }
1050 1051 1052
    }

    // Delete temporary files directory.
1053
    file_unmanaged_delete_recursive($this->originalFileDirectory . '/simpletest/' . substr($this->databasePrefix, 10), array($this, 'filePreDeleteCallback'));
1054 1055 1056 1057

    // Restore original database connection.
    Database::removeConnection('default');
    Database::renameConnection('simpletest_original_default', 'default');
1058 1059 1060 1061
    // @see TestBase::changeDatabasePrefix()
    global $databases;
    $connection_info = Database::getConnectionInfo('default');
    $databases['default']['default'] = $connection_info['default'];
1062

1063
    // Restore original globals.
1064 1065 1066
    if (isset($this->originalThemeKey)) {
      $GLOBALS['theme_key'] = $this->originalThemeKey;
    }
1067 1068
    $GLOBALS['theme'] = $this->originalTheme;

1069
    // Reset all static variables.
1070 1071
    // All destructors of statically cached objects have been invoked above;
    // this second reset is guranteed to reset everything to nothing.
1072 1073 1074 1075
    drupal_static_reset();

    // Restore original in-memory configuration.
    $conf = $this->originalConf;
1076
    new Settings($this->originalSettings);
1077 1078

    // Restore original statics and globals.
1079
    \Drupal::setContainer($this->originalContainer);
1080
    $GLOBALS['config_directories'] = $this->originalConfigDirectories;
1081 1082 1083
    if (isset($this->originalPrefix)) {
      drupal_valid_test_ua($this->originalPrefix);
    }
1084 1085 1086 1087 1088 1089 1090 1091 1092 1093

    // Restore original shutdown callbacks.
    $callbacks = &drupal_register_shutdown_function();
    $callbacks = $this->originalShutdownCallbacks;

    // Restore original user session.
    $user = $this->originalUser;
    drupal_save_session(TRUE);
  }

1094 1095 1096 1097 1098 1099 1100 1101
  /**
   * Handle errors during test runs.
   *
   * Because this is registered in set_error_handler(), it has to be public.
   * @see set_error_handler
   */
  public function errorHandler($severity, $message, $file = NULL, $line = NULL) {
    if ($severity & error_reporting()) {
1102
      require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/core/includes/errors.inc';
1103 1104 1105 1106 1107 1108 1109 1110 1111 1112 1113 1114 1115
      $error_map = array(
        E_STRICT => 'Run-time notice',
        E_WARNING => 'Warning',
        E_NOTICE => 'Notice',
        E_CORE_ERROR => 'Core error',
        E_CORE_WARNING => 'Core warning',
        E_USER_ERROR => 'User error',
        E_USER_WARNING => 'User warning',
        E_USER_NOTICE => 'User notice',
        E_RECOVERABLE_ERROR => 'Recoverable error',
      );

      $backtrace = debug_backtrace();
1116 1117 1118 1119 1120 1121 1122 1123

      // Add verbose backtrace for errors, but not for debug() messages.
      if ($severity !== E_USER_NOTICE) {
        $verbose_backtrace = $backtrace;
        array_shift($verbose_backtrace);
        $message .= '<pre class="backtrace">' . format_backtrace($verbose_backtrace) . '</pre>';
      }

1124 1125 1126 1127 1128 1129 1130 1131 1132 1133 1134
      $this->error($message, $error_map[$severity], _drupal_get_last_caller($backtrace));
    }
    return TRUE;
  }

  /**
   * Handle exceptions.
   *
   * @see set_exception_handler
   */
  protected function exceptionHandler($exception) {
1135
    require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/core/includes/errors.inc';
1136
    $backtrace = $exception->getTrace();
1137
    $verbose_backtrace = $backtrace;
1138 1139 1140 1141 1142 1143
    // Push on top of the backtrace the call that generated the exception.
    array_unshift($backtrace, array(
      'line' => $exception->getLine(),
      'file' => $exception->getFile(),
    ));
    // The exception message is run through check_plain() by _drupal_decode_exception().
1144 1145 1146
    $decoded_exception = _drupal_decode_exception($exception);
    unset($decoded_exception['backtrace']);
    $message = format_string('%type: !message in %function (line %line of %file). <pre class="backtrace">!backtrace</pre>', $decoded_exception + array(
1147 1148 1149
      '!backtrace' => format_backtrace($verbose_backtrace),
    ));
    $this->error($message, 'Uncaught exception', _drupal_get_last_caller($backtrace));
1150 1151
  }

1152 1153 1154 1155 1156 1157 1158 1159 1160 1161 1162 1163 1164 1165 1166 1167
  /**
   * Changes in memory settings.
   *
   * @param $name
   *   The name of the setting to return.
   * @param $value
   *   The value of the setting.
   *
   * @see \Drupal\Component\Utility\Settings::get()
   */
  protected function settingsSet($name, $value) {
    $settings = settings()->getAll();
    $settings[$name] = $value;
    new Settings($settings);
  }

1168
  /**
1169
   * Generates a unique random string of ASCII characters of codes 32 to 126.
1170
   *
1171 1172 1173 1174
   * The generated string includes alpha-numeric characters and common
   * miscellaneous characters. Use this method when testing general input
   * where the content is not restricted.
   *
1175 1176
   * Do not use this method when special characters are not possible (e.g., in
   * machine or file names that have already been validated); instead, use
1177
   * Drupal\simpletest\TestBase::randomName().
1178 1179 1180
   *
   * @param $length
   *   Length of random string to generate.
1181
   *
1182 1183
   * @return
   *   Randomly generated string.
1184 1185
   *
   * @see Drupal\simpletest\TestBase::randomName()
1186
   */
1187 1188 1189 1190 1191 1192 1193
  public function randomString($length = 8) {
    do {
      $str = '';
      for ($i = 0; $i < $length; $i++) {
        $str .= chr(mt_rand(32, 126));
      }
    } while (isset($this->randomStrings[$str]));
1194 1195 1196 1197
    return $str;
  }

  /**
1198
   * Generates a unique random string containing letters and numbers.
1199 1200 1201 1202 1203 1204 1205
   *
   * The string will always start with a letter. The letters may be upper or
   * lower case. This method is better for restricted inputs that do not
   * accept certain characters. For example, when testing input fields that
   * require machine readable values (i.e. without spaces and non-standard
   * characters) this method is best.
   *
1206 1207 1208
   * Do not use this method when testing unvalidated user input. Instead, use
   * Drupal\simpletest\TestBase::randomString().
   *
1209 1210
   * @param $length
   *   Length of random string to generate.
1211
   *
1212 1213
   * @return
   *   Randomly generated string.
1214 1215
   *
   * @see Drupal\simpletest\TestBase::randomString()
1216
   */
1217 1218 1219 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225
  public function randomName($length = 8) {
    do {
      $values = array_merge(range(65, 90), range(97, 122), range(48, 57));
      $max = count($values) - 1;
      $str = chr(mt_rand(97, 122));
      for ($i = 1; $i < $length; $i++) {
        $str .= chr($values[mt_rand(0, $max)]);
      }
    } while (isset($this->randomNames[$str]));
1226 1227 1228
    return $str;
  }

1229 1230 1231 1232 1233 1234 1235 1236 1237 1238
  /**
   * Generates a random PHP object.
   *
   * @param int $size
   *   The number of random keys to add to the object.
   *
   * @return \stdClass
   *   The generated object, with the specified number of random keys. Each key
   *   has a random string value.
   */
1239
  public function randomObject($size = 4) {
1240 1241
    $object = new \stdClass();
    for ($i = 0; $i < $size; $i++) {
1242 1243
      $random_key = $this->randomName();
      $random_value = $this->randomString();
1244 1245 1246 1247 1248
      $object->{$random_key} = $random_value;
    }
    return $object;
  }

1249 1250 1251 1252 1253 1254 1255 1256 1257 1258 1259 1260
  /**
   * Converts a list of possible parameters into a stack of permutations.
   *
   * Takes a list of parameters containing possible values, and converts all of
   * them into a list of items containing every possible permutation.
   *
   * Example:
   * @code
   * $parameters = array(
   *   'one' => array(0, 1),
   *   'two' => array(2, 3),
   * );
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   * $permutations = TestBase::generatePermutations($parameters);
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   * // Result:
   * $permutations == array(
   *   array('one' => 0, 'two' => 2),
   *   array('one' => 1, 'two' => 2),
   *   array('one' => 0, 'two' => 3),
   *   array('one' => 1, 'two' => 3),
   * )
   * @endcode
   *
   * @param $parameters
   *   An associative array of parameters, keyed by parameter name, and whose
   *   values are arrays of parameter values.
   *
   * @return
   *   A list of permutations, which is an array of arrays. Each inner array
   *   contains the full list of parameters that have been passed, but with a
   *   single value only.
   */
  public static function generatePermutations($parameters) {
    $all_permutations = array(array());
    foreach ($parameters as $parameter => $values) {
      $new_permutations = array();
      // Iterate over all values of the parameter.
      foreach ($values as $value) {
        // Iterate over all existing permutations.
        foreach ($all_permutations as $permutation) {
          // Add the new parameter value to existing permutations.
          $new_permutations[] = $permutation + array($parameter => $value);
        }
      }
      // Replace the old permutations with the new permutations.
      $all_permutations = $new_permutations;
    }
    return $all_permutations;
  }
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  /**
   * Ensures test files are deletable within file_unmanaged_delete_recursive().
   *
   * Some tests chmod generated files to be read only. During tearDown() and
   * other cleanup operations, these files need to get deleted too.
   */
  public static function filePreDeleteCallback($path) {
    chmod($path, 0700);
  }
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  /**
   * Returns a ConfigImporter object to import test importing of configuration.
   *
   * @return \Drupal\Core\Config\ConfigImporter
   *   The ConfigImporter object.
   */
  public function configImporter() {
    if (!$this->configImporter) {
      // Set up the ConfigImporter object for testing.
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      $config_comparer = new StorageComparer(
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        $this->container->get('config.storage.staging'),
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        $this->container->get('config.storage')
      );
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      $this->configImporter = new ConfigImporter(
        $config_comparer,
        $this->container->get('event_dispatcher'),
        $this->container->get('config.factory'),
        $this->container->get('plugin.manager.entity'),
        $this->container->get('lock')
      );
    }
    // Always recalculate the changelist when called.
    return $this->configImporter->reset();
  }
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  /**
   * Copies configuration objects from source storage to target storage.
   *
   * @param \Drupal\Core\Config\StorageInterface $source_storage
   *   The source config storage service.
   * @param \Drupal\Core\Config\StorageInterface $target_storage
   *   The target config storage service.
   */
  public function copyConfig(StorageInterface $source_storage, StorageInterface $target_storage) {
    $target_storage->deleteAll();
    foreach ($source_storage->listAll() as $name) {
      $target_storage->write($name, $source_storage->read($name));
    }
  }
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}