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<?php

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/**
 * @file
 * Common functions that many Drupal modules will need to reference.
 *
 * The functions that are critical and need to be available even when serving
 * a cached page are instead located in bootstrap.inc.
 */

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use Drupal\Component\Serialization\Json;
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use Drupal\Component\Serialization\Yaml;
use Drupal\Component\Serialization\Exception\InvalidDataTypeException;
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use Drupal\Component\Utility\Bytes;
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use Drupal\Component\Utility\Crypt;
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use Drupal\Component\Utility\Number;
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use Drupal\Component\Utility\SortArray;
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use Drupal\Component\Utility\String;
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use Drupal\Component\Utility\Tags;
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use Drupal\Component\Utility\UrlHelper;
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use Drupal\Core\Cache\Cache;
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use Drupal\Core\Language\Language;
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use Drupal\Core\Site\Settings;
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use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Response;
use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Request;
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use Drupal\Core\PhpStorage\PhpStorageFactory;
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use Drupal\Component\Utility\NestedArray;
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use Drupal\Core\Datetime\DrupalDateTime;
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use Drupal\Core\EventSubscriber\HtmlViewSubscriber;
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use Drupal\Core\Routing\GeneratorNotInitializedException;
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use Drupal\Core\Template\Attribute;
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use Drupal\Core\Render\Element;
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use Drupal\Core\Session\AnonymousUserSession;
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/**
 * @defgroup php_wrappers PHP wrapper functions
 * @{
 * Functions that are wrappers or custom implementations of PHP functions.
 *
 * Certain PHP functions should not be used in Drupal. Instead, Drupal's
 * replacement functions should be used.
 *
 * For example, for improved or more secure UTF8-handling, or RFC-compliant
 * handling of URLs in Drupal.
 *
 * For ease of use and memorizing, all these wrapper functions use the same name
 * as the original PHP function, but prefixed with "drupal_". Beware, however,
 * that not all wrapper functions support the same arguments as the original
 * functions.
 *
 * You should always use these wrapper functions in your code.
 *
 * Wrong:
 * @code
 *   $my_substring = substr($original_string, 0, 5);
 * @endcode
 *
 * Correct:
 * @code
 *   $my_substring = drupal_substr($original_string, 0, 5);
 * @endcode
 *
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 * @}
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 */

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/**
 * Return status for saving which involved creating a new item.
 */
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const SAVED_NEW = 1;
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/**
 * Return status for saving which involved an update to an existing item.
 */
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const SAVED_UPDATED = 2;
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/**
 * Return status for saving which deleted an existing item.
 */
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const SAVED_DELETED = 3;
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/**
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 * The default aggregation group for CSS files added to the page.
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 */
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const CSS_AGGREGATE_DEFAULT = 0;
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/**
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 * The default aggregation group for theme CSS files added to the page.
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 */
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const CSS_AGGREGATE_THEME = 100;

/**
 * The default weight for CSS rules that style HTML elements ("base" styles).
 */
const CSS_BASE = -200;

/**
 * The default weight for CSS rules that layout a page.
 */
const CSS_LAYOUT = -100;

/**
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 * The default weight for CSS rules that style design components (and their associated states and themes.)
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 */
const CSS_COMPONENT = 0;

/**
 * The default weight for CSS rules that style states and are not included with components.
 */
const CSS_STATE = 100;

/**
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 * The default weight for CSS rules that style themes and are not included with components.
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 */
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const CSS_THEME = 200;
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/**
 * The default group for JavaScript settings added to the page.
 */
const JS_SETTING = -200;

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/**
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 * The default group for JavaScript and jQuery libraries added to the page.
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 */
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const JS_LIBRARY = -100;
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/**
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 * The default group for module JavaScript code added to the page.
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 */
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const JS_DEFAULT = 0;
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/**
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 * The default group for theme JavaScript code added to the page.
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 */
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const JS_THEME = 100;
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/**
 * The delimiter used to split plural strings.
 *
 * This is the ETX (End of text) character and is used as a minimal means to
 * separate singular and plural variants in source and translation text. It
 * was found to be the most compatible delimiter for the supported databases.
 */
const LOCALE_PLURAL_DELIMITER = "\03";

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/**
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 * Adds content to a specified region.
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 *
 * @param $region
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 *   Page region the content is added to.
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 * @param $data
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 *   Content to be added.
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 */
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function drupal_add_region_content($region = NULL, $data = NULL) {
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  static $content = array();

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  if (isset($region) && isset($data)) {
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    $content[$region][] = $data;
  }
  return $content;
}

/**
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 * Gets assigned content for a given region.
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 *
 * @param $region
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 *   A specified region to fetch content for. If NULL, all regions will be
 *   returned.
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 * @param $delimiter
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 *   Content to be inserted between imploded array elements.
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 */
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function drupal_get_region_content($region = NULL, $delimiter = ' ') {
  $content = drupal_add_region_content();
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  if (isset($region)) {
    if (isset($content[$region]) && is_array($content[$region])) {
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      return implode($delimiter, $content[$region]);
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    }
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  }
  else {
    foreach (array_keys($content) as $region) {
      if (is_array($content[$region])) {
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        $content[$region] = implode($delimiter, $content[$region]);
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      }
    }
    return $content;
  }
}

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/**
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 * Gets the name of the currently active installation profile.
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 *
 * When this function is called during Drupal's initial installation process,
 * the name of the profile that's about to be installed is stored in the global
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 * installation state. At all other times, the "install_profile" setting will be
 * available in settings.php.
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 *
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 * @return string|null $profile
 *   The name of the installation profile or NULL if no installation profile is
 *   currently active. This is the case for example during the first steps of
 *   the installer or during unit tests.
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 */
function drupal_get_profile() {
  global $install_state;

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  if (drupal_installation_attempted()) {
    // If the profile has been selected return it.
    if (isset($install_state['parameters']['profile'])) {
      $profile = $install_state['parameters']['profile'];
    }
    else {
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      $profile = NULL;
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    }
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  }
  else {
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    // Fall back to NULL, if there is no 'install_profile' setting.
    $profile = Settings::get('install_profile');
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  }

  return $profile;
}

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/**
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 * Adds output to the HEAD tag of the HTML page.
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 *
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 * This function can be called as long as the headers aren't sent. Pass no
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 * arguments (or NULL for both) to retrieve the currently stored elements.
 *
 * @param $data
 *   A renderable array. If the '#type' key is not set then 'html_tag' will be
 *   added as the default '#type'.
 * @param $key
 *   A unique string key to allow implementations of hook_html_head_alter() to
 *   identify the element in $data. Required if $data is not NULL.
 *
 * @return
 *   An array of all stored HEAD elements.
 *
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 * @see drupal_pre_render_html_tag()
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 */
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function drupal_add_html_head($data = NULL, $key = NULL) {
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  $stored_head = &drupal_static(__FUNCTION__, array());
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  if (isset($data) && isset($key)) {
    if (!isset($data['#type'])) {
      $data['#type'] = 'html_tag';
    }
    $stored_head[$key] = $data;
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  }
  return $stored_head;
}

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/**
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 * Retrieves output to be displayed in the HEAD tag of the HTML page.
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 *
 * @param bool $render
 *   If TRUE render the HEAD elements, otherwise return just the elements.
 *
 * @return string|array
 *   Return the rendered HTML head or the elements itself.
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 */
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function drupal_get_html_head($render = TRUE) {
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  $elements = drupal_add_html_head();
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  \Drupal::moduleHandler()->alter('html_head', $elements);
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  if ($render) {
    return drupal_render($elements);
  }
  else {
    return $elements;
  }
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}

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/**
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 * Adds a feed URL for the current page.
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 *
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 * This function can be called as long the HTML header hasn't been sent.
 *
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 * @param $url
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 *   An internal system path or a fully qualified external URL of the feed.
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 * @param $title
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 *   The title of the feed.
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 */
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function drupal_add_feed($url = NULL, $title = '') {
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  $stored_feed_links = &drupal_static(__FUNCTION__, array());
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  if (isset($url)) {
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    $stored_feed_links[$url] = array('url' => $url, 'title' => $title);
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  }
  return $stored_feed_links;
}

/**
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 * Gets the feed URLs for the current page.
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 */
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function drupal_get_feeds() {
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  $feeds = drupal_add_feed();
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  return $feeds;
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}

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/**
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 * @defgroup http_handling HTTP handling
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 * @{
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 * Functions to properly handle HTTP responses.
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 */

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/**
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 * Prepares a 'destination' URL query parameter for use with url().
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 *
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 * Used to direct the user back to the referring page after completing a form.
 * By default the current URL is returned. If a destination exists in the
 * previous request, that destination is returned. As such, a destination can
 * persist across multiple pages.
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 *
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 * @return
 *   An associative array containing the key:
 *   - destination: The path provided via the destination query string or, if
 *     not available, the current path.
 *
 * @see current_path()
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 */
function drupal_get_destination() {
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  $destination = &drupal_static(__FUNCTION__);

  if (isset($destination)) {
    return $destination;
  }

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  $query = \Drupal::request()->query;
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  if ($query->has('destination')) {
    $destination = array('destination' => $query->get('destination'));
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  }
  else {
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    $path = current_path();
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    $query = UrlHelper::buildQuery(UrlHelper::filterQueryParameters($query->all()));
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    if ($query != '') {
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      $path .= '?' . $query;
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    }
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    $destination = array('destination' => $path);
  }
  return $destination;
}

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/**
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 * @} End of "defgroup http_handling".
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 */
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/**
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 * @defgroup validation Input validation
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 * @{
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 * Functions to validate user input.
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 */

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/**
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 * Verifies the syntax of the given e-mail address.
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 *
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 * This uses the
 * @link http://php.net/manual/filter.filters.validate.php PHP e-mail validation filter. @endlink
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 *
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 * @param $mail
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 *   A string containing an e-mail address.
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 *
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 * @return
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 *   TRUE if the address is in a valid format.
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 */
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function valid_email_address($mail) {
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  return (bool)filter_var($mail, FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL);
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}

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/**
 * @} End of "defgroup validation".
 */

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/**
 * @defgroup sanitization Sanitization functions
 * @{
 * Functions to sanitize values.
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 *
 * See http://drupal.org/writing-secure-code for information
 * on writing secure code.
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 */

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/**
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 * Strips dangerous protocols from a URI and encodes it for output to HTML.
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 *
 * @param $uri
 *   A plain-text URI that might contain dangerous protocols.
 *
 * @return
 *   A URI stripped of dangerous protocols and encoded for output to an HTML
 *   attribute value. Because it is already encoded, it should not be set as a
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 *   value within a $attributes array passed to Drupal\Core\Template\Attribute,
 *   because Drupal\Core\Template\Attribute expects those values to be
 *   plain-text strings. To pass a filtered URI to
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 *   Drupal\Core\Template\Attribute, call
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 *   \Drupal\Component\Utility\UrlHelper::stripDangerousProtocols() instead.
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 *
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 * @see \Drupal\Component\Utility\UrlHelper::stripDangerousProtocols()
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 * @see \Drupal\Component\Utility\String::checkPlain()
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 */
function check_url($uri) {
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  return String::checkPlain(UrlHelper::stripDangerousProtocols($uri));
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}

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/**
 * @} End of "defgroup sanitization".
 */

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/**
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 * @defgroup format Formatting
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 * @{
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 * Functions to format numbers, strings, dates, etc.
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 */

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/**
 * Formats an RSS channel.
 *
 * Arbitrary elements may be added using the $args associative array.
 */
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function format_rss_channel($title, $link, $description, $items, $langcode = NULL, $args = array()) {
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  $langcode = $langcode ? $langcode : \Drupal::languageManager()->getCurrentLanguage(Language::TYPE_CONTENT)->id;
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  $output = "<channel>\n";
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  $output .= ' <title>' . String::checkPlain($title) . "</title>\n";
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  $output .= ' <link>' . check_url($link) . "</link>\n";
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  // The RSS 2.0 "spec" doesn't indicate HTML can be used in the description.
  // We strip all HTML tags, but need to prevent double encoding from properly
  // escaped source data (such as &amp becoming &amp;amp;).
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  $output .= ' <description>' . String::checkPlain(decode_entities(strip_tags($description))) . "</description>\n";
  $output .= ' <language>' . String::checkPlain($langcode) . "</language>\n";
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  $output .= format_xml_elements($args);
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  $output .= $items;
  $output .= "</channel>\n";

  return $output;
}

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/**
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 * Formats a single RSS item.
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 *
 * Arbitrary elements may be added using the $args associative array.
 */
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function format_rss_item($title, $link, $description, $args = array()) {
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  $output = "<item>\n";
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  $output .= ' <title>' . String::checkPlain($title) . "</title>\n";
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  $output .= ' <link>' . check_url($link) . "</link>\n";
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  $output .= ' <description>' . String::checkPlain($description) . "</description>\n";
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  $output .= format_xml_elements($args);
  $output .= "</item>\n";

  return $output;
}

/**
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 * Formats XML elements.
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 *
 * @param $array
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 *   An array where each item represents an element and is either a:
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 *   - (key => value) pair (<key>value</key>)
 *   - Associative array with fields:
 *     - 'key': element name
 *     - 'value': element contents
 *     - 'attributes': associative array of element attributes
 *
 * In both cases, 'value' can be a simple string, or it can be another array
 * with the same format as $array itself for nesting.
 */
function format_xml_elements($array) {
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  $output = '';
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  foreach ($array as $key => $value) {
    if (is_numeric($key)) {
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      if ($value['key']) {
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        $output .= ' <' . $value['key'];
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        if (isset($value['attributes']) && is_array($value['attributes'])) {
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          $output .= new Attribute($value['attributes']);
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        }

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        if (isset($value['value']) && $value['value'] != '') {
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          $output .= '>' . (is_array($value['value']) ? format_xml_elements($value['value']) : String::checkPlain($value['value'])) . '</' . $value['key'] . ">\n";
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        }
        else {
          $output .= " />\n";
        }
      }
    }
    else {
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      $output .= ' <' . $key . '>' . (is_array($value) ? format_xml_elements($value) : String::checkPlain($value)) . "</$key>\n";
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    }
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  }
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  return $output;
}

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/**
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 * Formats a string containing a count of items.
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 *
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 * This function ensures that the string is pluralized correctly. Since t() is
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 * called by this function, make sure not to pass already-localized strings to
 * it.
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 *
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 * For example:
 * @code
 *   $output = format_plural($node->comment_count, '1 comment', '@count comments');
 * @endcode
 *
 * Example with additional replacements:
 * @code
 *   $output = format_plural($update_count,
 *     'Changed the content type of 1 post from %old-type to %new-type.',
 *     'Changed the content type of @count posts from %old-type to %new-type.',
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 *     array('%old-type' => $info->old_type, '%new-type' => $info->new_type));
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 * @endcode
 *
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 * @param $count
 *   The item count to display.
 * @param $singular
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 *   The string for the singular case. Make sure it is clear this is singular,
 *   to ease translation (e.g. use "1 new comment" instead of "1 new"). Do not
 *   use @count in the singular string.
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 * @param $plural
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 *   The string for the plural case. Make sure it is clear this is plural, to
 *   ease translation. Use @count in place of the item count, as in
 *   "@count new comments".
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 * @param $args
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 *   An associative array of replacements to make after translation. Instances
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 *   of any key in this array are replaced with the corresponding value.
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 *   Based on the first character of the key, the value is escaped and/or
 *   themed. See format_string(). Note that you do not need to include @count
 *   in this array; this replacement is done automatically for the plural case.
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 * @param $options
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 *   An associative array of additional options. See t() for allowed keys.
 *
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 * @return
 *   A translated string.
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 *
 * @see t()
 * @see format_string()
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 * @see \Drupal\Core\StringTranslation\TranslationManager->formatPlural()
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 *
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 * @deprecated in Drupal 8.x-dev, will be removed before Drupal 8.0.
 *   Use \Drupal::translation()->formatPlural().
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 */
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function format_plural($count, $singular, $plural, array $args = array(), array $options = array()) {
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  return \Drupal::translation()->formatPlural($count, $singular, $plural, $args, $options);
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}

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/**
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 * Parses a given byte count.
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 *
 * @param $size
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 *   A size expressed as a number of bytes with optional SI or IEC binary unit
 *   prefix (e.g. 2, 3K, 5MB, 10G, 6GiB, 8 bytes, 9mbytes).
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 *
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 * @return
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 *   An integer representation of the size in bytes.
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 *
 * @deprecated in Drupal 8.x-dev, will be removed before Drupal 8.0.
 *   Use \Drupal\Component\Utility\Bytes::toInt().
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 */
function parse_size($size) {
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  return Bytes::toInt($size);
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}

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/**
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 * Generates a string representation for the given byte count.
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 *
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 * @param $size
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 *   A size in bytes.
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 * @param $langcode
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 *   Optional language code to translate to a language other than what is used
 *   to display the page.
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 *
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 * @return
 *   A translated string representation of the size.
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 */
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function format_size($size, $langcode = NULL) {
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  if ($size < Bytes::KILOBYTE) {
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    return format_plural($size, '1 byte', '@count bytes', array(), array('langcode' => $langcode));
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  }
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  else {
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    $size = $size / Bytes::KILOBYTE; // Convert bytes to kilobytes.
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    $units = array(
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      t('@size KB', array(), array('langcode' => $langcode)),
      t('@size MB', array(), array('langcode' => $langcode)),
      t('@size GB', array(), array('langcode' => $langcode)),
      t('@size TB', array(), array('langcode' => $langcode)),
      t('@size PB', array(), array('langcode' => $langcode)),
      t('@size EB', array(), array('langcode' => $langcode)),
      t('@size ZB', array(), array('langcode' => $langcode)),
      t('@size YB', array(), array('langcode' => $langcode)),
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    );
    foreach ($units as $unit) {
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      if (round($size, 2) >= Bytes::KILOBYTE) {
        $size = $size / Bytes::KILOBYTE;
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      }
      else {
        break;
      }
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    }
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    return str_replace('@size', round($size, 2), $unit);
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  }
}

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/**
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 * Formats a time interval with the requested granularity.
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 *
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 * @param $interval
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 *   The length of the interval in seconds.
 * @param $granularity
 *   How many different units to display in the string.
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 * @param $langcode
 *   Optional language code to translate to a language other than
 *   what is used to display the page.
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 *
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 * @return
 *   A translated string representation of the interval.
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 *
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 * @see \Drupal\Core\Datetime\Date::formatInterval()
 *
 * @deprecated in Drupal 8.x-dev, will be removed before Drupal 8.0.
 *   Use \Drupal::service('date')->formatInterval().
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 */
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function format_interval($interval, $granularity = 2, $langcode = NULL) {
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  return \Drupal::service('date')->formatInterval($interval, $granularity, $langcode);
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}

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/**
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 * Formats a date, using a date type or a custom date format string.
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 *
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 * @param $timestamp
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 *   A UNIX timestamp to format.
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 * @param $type
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 *   (optional) The format to use, one of:
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 *   - One of the built-in formats: 'short', 'medium',
 *     'long', 'html_datetime', 'html_date', 'html_time',
 *     'html_yearless_date', 'html_week', 'html_month', 'html_year'.
 *   - The name of a date type defined by a module in
 *     hook_date_format_types(), if it's been assigned a format.
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 *   - The machine name of an administrator-defined date format.
 *   - 'custom', to use $format.
 *   Defaults to 'medium'.
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 * @param $format
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 *   (optional) If $type is 'custom', a PHP date format string suitable for
 *   input to date(). Use a backslash to escape ordinary text, so it does not
 *   get interpreted as date format characters.
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 * @param $timezone
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 *   (optional) Time zone identifier, as described at
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 *   http://php.net/manual/timezones.php Defaults to the time zone used to
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 *   display the page.
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 * @param $langcode
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 *   (optional) Language code to translate to. Defaults to the language used to
 *   display the page.
 *
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 * @return
 *   A translated date string in the requested format.
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 *
 * @see \Drupal\Component\Datetime\Date::format()
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 */
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function format_date($timestamp, $type = 'medium', $format = '', $timezone = NULL, $langcode = NULL) {
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  return \Drupal::service('date')->format($timestamp, $type, $format, $timezone, $langcode);
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}

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/**
 * Returns an ISO8601 formatted date based on the given date.
 *
 * @param $date
 *   A UNIX timestamp.
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 *
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 * @return string
 *   An ISO8601 formatted date.
 */
function date_iso8601($date) {
  // The DATE_ISO8601 constant cannot be used here because it does not match
  // date('c') and produces invalid RDF markup.
  return date('c', $date);
}

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/**
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 * Translates a formatted date string.
 *
 * Callback for preg_replace_callback() within format_date().
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 */
function _format_date_callback(array $matches = NULL, $new_langcode = NULL) {
  // We cache translations to avoid redundant and rather costly calls to t().
  static $cache, $langcode;

  if (!isset($matches)) {
    $langcode = $new_langcode;
    return;
  }

  $code = $matches[1];
  $string = $matches[2];

  if (!isset($cache[$langcode][$code][$string])) {
    $options = array(
      'langcode' => $langcode,
    );

    if ($code == 'F') {
      $options['context'] = 'Long month name';
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    }
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    if ($code == '') {
      $cache[$langcode][$code][$string] = $string;
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    }
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    else {
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      $cache[$langcode][$code][$string] = t($string, array(), $options);
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    }
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  }
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  return $cache[$langcode][$code][$string];
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}

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/**
 * @} End of "defgroup format".
 */
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/**
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 * Generates an internal or external URL.
 *
 * When creating links in modules, consider whether l() could be a better
 * alternative than url().
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 *
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 * @see \Drupal\Core\Routing\UrlGeneratorInterface::generateFromPath().
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 */
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function url($path = NULL, array $options = array()) {
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  $generator = \Drupal::urlGenerator();
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  try {
    $url = $generator->generateFromPath($path, $options);
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  }
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  catch (GeneratorNotInitializedException $e) {
    // Fallback to using globals.
    // @todo Remove this once there is no code that calls url() when there is
    //   no request.
    global $base_url, $base_path, $script_path;
    $generator->setBasePath($base_path);
    $generator->setBaseUrl($base_url . '/');
    $generator->setScriptPath($script_path);
    $url = $generator->generateFromPath($path, $options);
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  }
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  return $url;
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}

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/**
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 * Formats an attribute string for an HTTP header.
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 *
 * @param $attributes
 *   An associative array of attributes such as 'rel'.
 *
 * @return
 *   A ; separated string ready for insertion in a HTTP header. No escaping is
 *   performed for HTML entities, so this string is not safe to be printed.
 *
 * @see drupal_add_http_header()
 */
function drupal_http_header_attributes(array $attributes = array()) {
  foreach ($attributes as $attribute => &$data) {
    if (is_array($data)) {
      $data = implode(' ', $data);
    }
    $data = $attribute . '="' . $data . '"';
  }
  return $attributes ? ' ' . implode('; ', $attributes) : '';
}

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/**
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 * Formats an internal or external URL link as an HTML anchor tag.
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 *
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 * This function correctly handles aliased paths and adds an 'active' class
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 * attribute to links that point to the current page (for theming), so all
 * internal links output by modules should be generated by this function if
 * possible.
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 *
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 * However, for links enclosed in translatable text you should use t() and
 * embed the HTML anchor tag directly in the translated string. For example:
 * @code
 * t('Visit the <a href="@url">settings</a> page', array('@url' => url('admin')));
 * @endcode
 * This keeps the context of the link title ('settings' in the example) for
 * translators.
 *
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 * This function does not support generating links from internal routes. For
 * that use \Drupal\Core\Utility\LinkGenerator::generate(), which is exposed via
 * the 'link_generator' service. It requires an internal route name and does not
 * support external URLs. Using Drupal 7 style system paths should be avoided if
 * possible but l() should still be used when rendering links to external URLs.
 *
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 * @param string|array $text
 *   The link text for the anchor tag as a translated string or render array.
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 * @param string $path
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 *   The internal path or external URL being linked to, such as "node/34" or
 *   "http://example.com/foo". After the url() function is called to construct
 *   the URL from $path and $options, the resulting URL is passed through
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 *   \Drupal\Component\Utility\String::checkPlain() before it is inserted into
 *   the HTML anchor tag, to ensure well-formed HTML. See url() for more
 *   information and notes.
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 * @param array $options
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 *   An associative array of additional options. Defaults to an empty array. It
 *   may contain the following elements.
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 *   - 'attributes': An associative array of HTML attributes to apply to the
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 *     anchor tag. If element 'class' is included, it must be an array; 'title'
 *     must be a string; other elements are more flexible, as they just need
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 *     to work as an argument for the constructor of the class
 *     Drupal\Core\Template\Attribute($options['attributes']).
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 *   - 'html' (default FALSE): Whether $text is HTML or just plain-text. For
 *     example, to make an image tag into a link, this must be set to TRUE, or
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 *     you will see the escaped HTML image tag. $text is not sanitized if
 *     'html' is TRUE. The calling function must ensure that $text is already
 *     safe.
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 *   - 'language': An optional language object. If the path being linked to is
 *     internal to the site, $options['language'] is used to determine whether
 *     the link is "active", or pointing to the current page (the language as
 *     well as the path must match). This element is also used by url().
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 *   - 'set_active_class': Whether l() should compare the $path, language and
 *     query options to the current URL to determine whether the link is
 *     "active". Defaults to FALSE. If TRUE, an "active" class will be applied
 *     to the link. It is important to use this sparingly since it is usually
 *     unnecessary and requires extra processing.
 *     For anonymous users, the "active" class will be calculated on the server,
 *     because most sites serve each anonymous user the same cached page anyway.
 *     For authenticated users, the "active" class will be calculated on the
 *     client (through JavaScript), only data- attributes are added to links to
 *     prevent breaking the render cache. The JavaScript is added in
 *     system_page_build().
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 *   - Additional $options elements used by the url() function.
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 *
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 * @return string
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 *   An HTML string containing a link to the given path.
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 *
 * @see url()
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 * @see system_page_build()
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 */
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function l($text, $path, array $options = array()) {
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  // Start building a structured representation of our link to be altered later.
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  $variables = array(
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    'text' => is_array($text) ? drupal_render($text) : $text,
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    'path' => $path,
    'options' => $options,
  );
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  // Merge in default options.
  $variables['options'] += array(
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    'attributes' => array(),
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    'query' => array(),
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    'html' => FALSE,
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    'language' => NULL,
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    'set_active_class' => FALSE,
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  );
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  // Add a hreflang attribute if we know the language of this link's url and
  // hreflang has not already been set.
  if (!empty($variables['options']['language']) && !isset($variables['options']['attributes']['hreflang'])) {
    $variables['options']['attributes']['hreflang'] = $variables['options']['language']->id;
  }

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  // Set the "active" class if the 'set_active_class' option is not empty.
  if (!empty($variables['options']['set_active_class'])) {
    // Add a "data-drupal-link-query" attribute to let the drupal.active-link
    // library know the query in a standardized manner.
    if (!empty($variables['options']['query'])) {
      $query = $variables['options']['query'];
      ksort($query);
      $variables['options']['attributes']['data-drupal-link-query'] = Json::encode($query);
    }
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    // Add a "data-drupal-link-system-path" attribute to let the
    // drupal.active-link library know the path in a standardized manner.
    if (!isset($variables['options']['attributes']['data-drupal-link-system-path'])) {
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      $variables['options']['attributes']['data-drupal-link-system-path'] = \Drupal::service('path.alias_manager')->getPathByAlias($path);
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    }
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  }

  // Remove all HTML and PHP tags from a tooltip, calling expensive strip_tags()
  // only when a quick strpos() gives suspicion tags are present.
  if (isset($variables['options']['attributes']['title']) && strpos($variables['options']['attributes']['title'], '<') !== FALSE) {
    $variables['options']['attributes']['title'] = strip_tags($variables['options']['attributes']['title']);
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  }
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  // Allow other modules to modify the structure of the link.
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  \Drupal::moduleHandler()->alter('link', $variables);
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  // Move attributes out of options. url() doesn't need them.
  $attributes = new Attribute($variables['options']['attributes']);
  unset($variables['options']['attributes']);

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  // The result of url() is a plain-text URL. Because we are using it here
  // in an HTML argument context, we need to encode it properly.
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  $url = String::checkPlain(url($variables['path'], $variables['options']));
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  // Sanitize the link text if necessary.
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  $text = $variables['options']['html'] ? $variables['text'] : String::checkPlain($variables['text']);
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  return '<a href="' . $url . '"' . $attributes . '>' . $text . '</a>';
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}

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/**
 * Attempts to set the PHP maximum execution time.
 *
 * This function is a wrapper around the PHP function set_time_limit().
 * When called, set_time_limit() restarts the timeout counter from zero.
 * In other words, if the timeout is the default 30 seconds, and 25 seconds
 * into script execution a call such as set_time_limit(20) is made, the
 * script will run for a total of 45 seconds before timing out.
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 *
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 * If the current time limit is not unlimited it is possible to decrease the
 * total time limit if the sum of the new time limit and the current time spent
 * running the script is inferior to the original time limit. It is inherent to
 * the way set_time_limit() works, it should rather be called with an
 * appropriate value every time you need to allocate a certain amount of time
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 * to execute a task than only once at the beginning of the script.
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 *
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 * Before calling set_time_limit(), we check if this function is available
 * because it could be disabled by the server administrator. We also hide all
 * the errors that could occur when calling set_time_limit(), because it is
 * not possible to reliably ensure that PHP or a security extension will
 * not issue a warning/error if they prevent the use of this function.
 *
 * @param $time_limit
 *   An integer specifying the new time limit, in seconds. A value of 0
 *   indicates unlimited execution time.
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 *
 * @ingroup php_wrappers
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 */
function drupal_set_time_limit($time_limit) {
  if (function_exists('set_time_limit')) {
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    $current = ini_get('max_execution_time');
    // Do not set time limit if it is currently unlimited.
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    if ($current != 0) {
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      @set_time_limit($time_limit);
    }
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  }
}

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/**
 * Returns the path to a system item (module, theme, etc.).
 *
 * @param $type
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 *   The type of the item; one of 'core', 'profile', 'module', 'theme', or
 *   'theme_engine'.
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 * @param $name
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 *   The name of the item for which the path is requested. Ignored for
 *   $type 'core'.
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 *
 * @return
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 *   The path to the requested item or an empty string if the item is not found.
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 */
function drupal_get_path($type, $name) {
  return dirname(drupal_get_filename($type, $name));
}

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/**
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 * Returns the base URL path (i.e., directory) of the Drupal installation.
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 *
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 * base_path() adds a "/" to the beginning and end of the returned path if the
 * path is not empty. At the very least, this will return "/".
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 *
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 * Examples:
 * - http://example.com returns "/" because the path is empty.
 * - http://example.com/drupal/folder returns "/drupal/folder/".
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 */
function base_path() {
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  return $GLOBALS['base_path'];
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}

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/**
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 * Adds a LINK tag with a distinct 'rel' attribute to the page's HEAD.
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 *
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 * This function can be called as long the HTML header hasn't been sent, which
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 * on normal pages is up through the preprocess step of _theme('html'). Adding
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 * a link will overwrite a prior link with the exact same 'rel' and 'href'
 * attributes.
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 *
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 * @param $attributes
 *   Associative array of element attributes including 'href' and 'rel'.
 * @param $header
 *   Optional flag to determine if a HTTP 'Link:' header should be sent.
 */
function drupal_add_html_head_link($attributes, $header = FALSE) {
  $element = array(
    '#tag' => 'link',
    '#attributes' => $attributes,
  );
  $href = $attributes['href'];

  if ($header) {
    // Also add a HTTP header "Link:".
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    $href = '<' . String::checkPlain($attributes['href']) . '>;';
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    unset($attributes['href']);
    $element['#attached']['drupal_add_http_header'][] = array('Link',  $href . drupal_http_header_attributes($attributes), TRUE);
  }

  drupal_add_html_head($element, 'drupal_add_html_head_link:' . $attributes['rel'] . ':' . $href);
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}

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/**
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 * Adds a cascading stylesheet to the stylesheet queue.
 *
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 * Calling drupal_static_reset('_drupal_add_css') will clear all cascading
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 * stylesheets added so far.
 *
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 * If CSS aggregation/compression is enabled, all cascading style sheets added
 * with $options['preprocess'] set to TRUE will be merged into one aggregate
 * file and compressed by removing all extraneous white space.
 * Preprocessed inline stylesheets will not be aggregated into this single file;
 * instead, they are just compressed upon output on the page. Externally hosted
 * stylesheets are never aggregated or compressed.
 *
 * The reason for aggregating the files is outlined quite thoroughly here:
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 * http://www.die.net/musings/page_load_time/ "Load fewer external objects. Due
 * to request overhead, one bigger file just loads faster than two smaller ones
 * half its size."
 *
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 * $options['preprocess'] should be only set to TRUE when a file is required for
 * all typical visitors and most pages of a site. It is critical that all
 * preprocessed files are added unconditionally on every page, even if the
 * files do not happen to be needed on a page. This is normally done by calling
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 * _drupal_add_css() in a hook_page_build() implementation.
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 *
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 * Non-preprocessed files should only be added to the page when they are
 * actually needed.
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 *
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 * @param $data
 *   (optional) The stylesheet data to be added, depending on what is passed
 *   through to the $options['type'] parameter:
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 *   - 'file': The path to the CSS file relative to the base_path(), or a
 *     stream wrapper URI. For example: "modules/devel/devel.css" or
 *     "public://generated_css/stylesheet_1.css". Note that Modules should
 *     always prefix the names of their CSS files with the module name; for
 *     example, system-menus.css rather than simply menus.css. Themes can
 *     override module-supplied CSS files based on their filenames, and this
 *     prefixing helps prevent confusing name collisions for theme developers.
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 *     See drupal_get_css() where the overrides are performed.