database.inc 70.6 KB
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<?php
// $Id$

/**
 * @file
 * Base classes for the database layer.
 */

/**
 * @defgroup database Database abstraction layer
 * @{
 * Allow the use of different database servers using the same code base.
 *
 * Drupal provides a database abstraction layer to provide developers with
 * the ability to support multiple database servers easily.  The intent of
 * this layer is to preserve the syntax and power of SQL as much as possible,
 * but also allow developers a way to leverage more complex functionality in
 * a unified way.  It also provides a structured interface for dynamically
 * constructing queries when appropriate, and enforcing security checks and
 * similar good practices.
 *
 * The system is built atop PHP's PDO (PHP Data Objects) database API and
 * inherits much of its syntax and semantics.
 *
 * Most Drupal database SELECT queries are performed by a call to db_query() or
 * db_query_range(). Module authors should also consider using pager_query() for
 * queries that return results that need to be presented on multiple pages, and
 * tablesort_sql() for generating appropriate queries for sortable tables.
 *
 * For example, one might wish to return a list of the most recent 10 nodes
 * authored by a given user. Instead of directly issuing the SQL query
 * @code
 *   SELECT n.nid, n.title, n.created FROM node n WHERE n.uid = $uid LIMIT 0, 10;
 * @endcode
 * one would instead call the Drupal functions:
 * @code
 *   $result = db_query_range('SELECT n.nid, n.title, n.created
 *     FROM {node} n WHERE n.uid = :uid', array(':uid' => $uid), 0, 10);
 *   foreach($result as $record) {
 *     // Perform operations on $node->title, etc. here.
 *   }
 * @endcode
 * Curly braces are used around "node" to provide table prefixing via
 * DatabaseConnection::prefixTables(). The explicit use of a user ID is pulled
 * out into an argument passed to db_query() so that SQL injection attacks
 * from user input can be caught and nullified. The LIMIT syntax varies between
 * database servers, so that is abstracted into db_query_range() arguments.
 * Finally, note the PDO-based ability to foreach() over the result set.
 *
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 *
 * All queries are passed as a prepared statement string.  A
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 * prepared statement is a "template" of a query that omits literal or variable
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 * values in favor of placeholders.  The values to place into those
 * placeholders are passed separately, and the database driver handles
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 * inserting the values into the query in a secure fashion.  That means you
 * should never quote or string-escape a value to be inserted into the query.
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 *
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 * There are two formats for placeholders: named and unnamed.  Named placeholders
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 * are strongly preferred in all cases as they are more flexible and
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 * self-documenting.
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 *
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 * Named placeholders begin with a colon followed by a unique string. Example:
 * @code
 * SELECT nid, title FROM {node} WHERE uid=:uid
 * @endcode
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 *
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 * ":uid" is a placeholder that will be replaced with a literal value when
 * the query is executed.  A given placeholder label cannot be repeated in a
 * given query, even if the value should be the same.  When using named
 * placeholders, the array of arguments to the query must be an associative
 * array where keys are a placeholder label (e.g., :uid) and the value is the
 * corresponding value to use.  The array may be in any order.
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 *
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 * Unnamed placeholders are simply a question mark.  Example:
 * @code
 * SELECT nid, title FROM {node} WHERE uid=?
 * @endcode
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 *
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 * In this case, the array of arguments must be an indexed array of values to
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 * use in the exact same order as the placeholders in the query.
 *
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 * Note that placeholders should be a "complete" value.  For example, when
 * running a LIKE query the SQL wildcard character, %, should be part of the
 * value, not the query itself.  Thus, the following is incorrect:
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 *
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 * @code
 * SELECT nid, title FROM {node} WHERE title LIKE :title%
 * @endcode
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 *
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 * It should instead read:
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 *
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 * @code
 * SELECT nid, title FROM {node} WHERE title LIKE :title
 * @endcode
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 *
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 * and the value for :title should include a % as appropriate.  Again, note the
 * lack of quotation marks around :title.  Because the value is not inserted
 * into the query as one big string but as an explicitly separate value, the
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 * database server knows where the query ends and a value begins.  That is
 * considerably more secure against SQL injection than trying to remember
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 * which values need quotation marks and string escaping and which don't.
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 *
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 *
 * INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE queries need special care in order to behave
 * consistently across all different databases.  Therefore, they use a special
 * object-oriented API for defining a query structurally.  For example, rather than
 * @code
 * INSERT INTO node (nid, title, body) VALUES (1, 'my title', 'my body')
 * @endcode
 * one would instead write:
 * @code
 * $fields = array('nid' => 1, 'title' => 'my title', 'body' => 'my body');
 * db_insert('my_table')->fields($fields)->execute();
 * @endcode
 * This method allows databases that need special data type handling to do so,
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 * while also allowing optimizations such as multi-insert queries.  UPDATE and
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 * DELETE queries have a similar pattern.
 */


/**
 * Base Database API class.
 *
 * This class provides a Drupal-specific extension of the PDO database abstraction class in PHP.
 * Every database driver implementation must provide a concrete implementation of it to support
 * special handling required by that database.
 *
 * @link http://us.php.net/manual/en/ref.pdo.php
 */
abstract class DatabaseConnection extends PDO {

  /**
   * Reference to the last statement that was executed.
   *
   * We only need this for the legacy db_affected_rows() call, which will be removed.
   *
   * @var DatabaseStatement
   * @todo Remove this variable.
   */
  public $lastStatement;

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  /**
   * The database target this connection is for.
   *
   * We need this information for later auditing and logging.
   *
   * @var string
   */
  protected $target = NULL;

  /**
   * The current database logging object for this connection.
   *
   * @var DatabaseLog
   */
  protected $logger = NULL;

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  function __construct($dsn, $username, $password, $driver_options = array()) {
    $driver_options[PDO::ATTR_ERRMODE] = PDO::ERRMODE_EXCEPTION; // Because the other methods don't seem to work right.
    parent::__construct($dsn, $username, $password, $driver_options);
    $this->setAttribute(PDO::ATTR_STATEMENT_CLASS, array('DatabaseStatement', array($this)));
  }

  /**
   * Return the default query options for any given query.
   *
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   * A given query can be customized with a number of option flags in an
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   * associative array.
   *
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   *   target - The database "target" against which to execute a query.  Valid
   *   values are "default" or "slave".  The system will first try to open a
   *   connection to a database specified with the user-supplied key.  If one
   *   is not available, it will silently fall back to the "default" target.
   *   If multiple databases connections are specified with the same target,
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   *   one will be selected at random for the duration of the request.
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   *
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   *   fetch - This element controls how rows from a result set will be returned.
   *   legal values include PDO::FETCH_ASSOC, PDO::FETCH_BOTH, PDO::FETCH_OBJ,
   *   PDO::FETCH_NUM, or a string representing the name of a class.  If a string
   *   is specified, each record will be fetched into a new object of that class.
   *   The behavior of all other values is defined by PDO.  See
   *   http://www.php.net/PDOStatement-fetch
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   *
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   *   return - Depending on the type of query, different return values may be
   *   meaningful.  This directive instructs the system which type of return
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   *   value is desired.  The system will generally set the correct value
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   *   automatically, so it is extremely rare that a module developer will ever
   *   need to specify this value.  Setting it incorrectly will likely lead to
   *   unpredictable results or fatal errors.  Legal values include:
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   *
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   *     Database::RETURN_STATEMENT - Return the prepared statement object for the
   *     query.  This is usually only meaningful for SELECT queries, where the
   *     statement object is how one accesses the result set returned by the query.
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   *
   *     Database::RETURN_AFFECTED - Return the number of rows affected by an
   *     UPDATE or DELETE query.  Be aware that means the number of rows
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   *     actually changed, not the number of rows matched by the WHERE clause.
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   *
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   *     Database::RETURN_INSERT_ID - Return the sequence ID (primary key)
   *     created by an INSERT statement on a table that contains a serial column.
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   *
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   *     Database::RETURN_NULL - Do not return anything, as there is no
   *     meaningful value to return.  That is the case for INSERT queries on
   *     tables that do not contain a serial column.
   *
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   *   throw_exception - By default, the database system will catch any errors
   *   on a query as an Exception, log it, and then rethrow it so that code
   *   further up the call chain can take an appropriate action.  To supress
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   *   that behavior and simply return NULL on failure, set this option to FALSE.
   *
   * @return
   *   An array of default query options.
   */
  protected function defaultOptions() {
    return array(
      'target' => 'default',
      'fetch' => PDO::FETCH_OBJ,
      'return' => Database::RETURN_STATEMENT,
      'throw_exception' => TRUE,
    );
  }

  /**
   * Append a database prefix to all tables in a query.
   *
   * Queries sent to Drupal should wrap all table names in curly brackets. This
   * function searches for this syntax and adds Drupal's table prefix to all
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   * tables, allowing Drupal to coexist with other systems in the same database
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   * if necessary.
   *
   * @param $sql
   *   A string containing a partial or entire SQL query.
   * @return
   *   The properly-prefixed string.
   */
  protected function prefixTables($sql) {
    global $db_prefix;

    if (is_array($db_prefix)) {
      if (array_key_exists('default', $db_prefix)) {
        $tmp = $db_prefix;
        unset($tmp['default']);
        foreach ($tmp as $key => $val) {
          $sql = strtr($sql, array('{' . $key . '}' => $val . $key));
        }
        return strtr($sql, array('{' => $db_prefix['default'] , '}' => ''));
      }
      else {
        foreach ($db_prefix as $key => $val) {
          $sql = strtr($sql, array('{' . $key . '}' => $val . $key));
        }
        return strtr($sql, array('{' => '' , '}' => ''));
      }
    }
    else {
      return strtr($sql, array('{' => $db_prefix , '}' => ''));
    }
  }

  /**
   * Prepare a query string and return the prepared statement.
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   *
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   * This method statically caches prepared statements, reusing them when
   * possible.  It also prefixes tables names enclosed in curly-braces.
   *
   * @param $query
   *   The query string as SQL, with curly-braces surrounding the
   *   table names.
   * @return
   *   A PDO prepared statement ready for its execute() method.
   */
  protected function prepareQuery($query) {
    static $statements = array();
    $query = self::prefixTables($query);
    if (empty($statements[$query])) {
      $statements[$query] = parent::prepare($query);
    }
    return $statements[$query];
  }

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  /**
   * Tell this connection object what its target value is.
   *
   * This is needed for logging and auditing.  It's sloppy to do in the
   * constructor because the constructor for child classes has a different
   * signature.  We therefore also ensure that this function is only ever
   * called once.
   *
   * @param $target
   *   The target this connection is for.  Set to NULL (default) to disable
   *   logging entirely.
   */
  public function setTarget($target = NULL) {
    if (!isset($this->target)) {
      $this->target = $target;
    }
  }

  /**
   * Returns the target this connection is associated with.
   *
   * @return
   *   The target string of this connection.
   */
  public function getTarget() {
    return $this->target;
  }

  /**
   * Associate a logging object with this connection.
   *
   * @param $logger
   *   The logging object we want to use.
   */
  public function setLogger(DatabaseLog $logger) {
    $this->logger = $logger;
  }

  /**
   * Get the current logging object for this connection.
   *
   * @return
   *   The current logging object for this connection.  If there isn't one,
   *   NULL is returned.
   */
  public function getLogger() {
    return $this->logger;
  }

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  /**
   * Create the appropriate sequence name for a given table and serial field.
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   *
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   * This information is exposed to all database drivers, although it is only
   * useful on some of them.  This method is table prefix-aware.
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   *
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   * @param $table
   *   The table name to use for the sequence.
   * @param $field
   *   The field name to use for the sequence.
   * @return
   *   A table prefix-parsed string for the sequence name.
   */
  public function makeSequenceName($table, $field) {
    return $this->prefixTables('{'. $table .'}_'. $field .'_seq');
  }
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  /**
   * Executes a query string against the database.
   *
   * This method provides a central handler for the actual execution
   * of every query.  All queries executed by Drupal are executed as
   * PDO prepared statements.  This method statically caches those
   * prepared statements, reusing them when possible.
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   *
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   * @param $query
   *   The query to execute.  In most cases this will be a string containing
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   *   an SQL query with placeholders.  An already-prepared instance of
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   *   DatabaseStatement may also be passed in order to allow calling code
   *   to manually bind variables to a query.  If a DatabaseStatement object
   *   is passed, the $args array will be ignored.
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   *
   *   It is extremely rare that module code will need to pass a statement
   *   object to this method.  It is used primarily for database drivers for
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   *   databases that require special LOB field handling.
   * @param $args
   *   An array of arguments for the prepared statement.  If the prepared
   *   statement uses ? placeholders, this array must be an indexed array.
   *   If it contains named placeholders, it must be an associative array.
   * @param $options
   *   An associative array of options to control how the query is run.  See
   *   the documentation for DatabaseConnection::defaultOptions() for details.
   * @return
   *   This method will return one of: The executed statement, the number of
   *   rows affected by the query (not the number matched), or the generated
   *   insert id of the last query, depending on the value of $options['return'].
   *   Typically that value will be set by default or a query builder and should
   *   not be set by a user.  If there is an error, this method will return NULL
   *   and may throw an exception if $options['throw_exception'] is TRUE.
   */
  public function query($query, Array $args = array(), $options = array()) {

    // Use default values if not already set.
    $options += $this->defaultOptions();
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    try {
      // We allow either a pre-bound statement object or a literal string.
      // In either case, we want to end up with an executed statement object.
      if ($query instanceof DatabaseStatement) {
        $stmt = $query;
        $stmt->execute(NULL, $options);
      }
      else {
        $stmt = $this->prepareQuery($query);
        $stmt->execute($args, $options);
      }
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      // Depending on the type of query we may need to return a different value.
      // See DatabaseConnection::defaultOptions() for a description of each value.
      switch ($options['return']) {
        case Database::RETURN_STATEMENT:
          return $stmt;
        case Database::RETURN_AFFECTED:
          return $stmt->rowCount();
        case Database::RETURN_INSERT_ID:
          return $this->lastInsertId();
        case Database::RETURN_NULL:
          return;
        default:
          throw new PDOException('Invalid return directive: ' . $options['return']);
      }
    }
    catch (PDOException $e) {
      if (!function_exists('module_implements')) {
        _db_need_install();
      }
      if ($options['throw_exception']) {
        if ($query instanceof DatabaseStatement) {
          $query_string = $stmt->queryString;
        }
        else {
          $query_string = $query;
        }
        throw new PDOException($query_string . " - \n" . print_r($args,1) . $e->getMessage());
      }
      return NULL;
    }
  }

  /**
   * Prepare and return a SELECT query object with the specified ID.
   *
   * @see SelectQuery
   * @param $table
   *   The base table for this query, that is, the first table in the FROM
   *   clause.  This table will also be used as the "base" table for query_alter
   *   hook implementations.
   * @param $alias
   *   The alias of the base table of this query.
   * @param $options
   *   An array of options on the query.
   * @return
   *   A new SelectQuery object.
   */
  public function select($table, $alias = NULL, Array $options = array()) {
    static $class_type;
    if (empty($class_type)) {
      $class_type = 'SelectQuery_' . $this->driver();
      if (!class_exists($class_type)) {
        $class_type = 'SelectQuery';
      }
    }
    return new $class_type($table, $alias, $this, $options);
  }

  /**
   * Prepare and return an INSERT query object with the specified ID.
   *
   * @see InsertQuery
   * @param $options
   *   An array of options on the query.
   * @return
   *   A new InsertQuery object.
   */
  public function insert($table, Array $options = array()) {
    static $class_type;
    if (empty($class_type)) {
      $class_type = 'InsertQuery_' . $this->driver();
      if (!class_exists($class_type)) {
        $class_type = 'InsertQuery';
      }
    }
    return new $class_type($this, $table, $options);
  }

  /**
   * Prepare and return a MERGE query object with the specified ID.
   *
   * @see MergeQuery
   * @param $options
   *   An array of options on the query.
   * @return
   *   A new MergeQuery object.
   */
  public function merge($table, Array $options = array()) {
    static $class_type;
    if (empty($class_type)) {
      $class_type = 'MergeQuery_' . $this->driver();
      if (!class_exists($class_type)) {
        $class_type = 'MergeQuery';
      }
    }
    return new $class_type($this, $table, $options);
  }

  /**
   * Prepare and return an UPDATE query object with the specified ID.
   *
   * @see UpdateQuery
   * @param $options
   *   An array of options on the query.
   * @return
   *   A new UpdateQuery object.
   */
  public function update($table, Array $options = array()) {
    static $class_type;
    if (empty($class_type)) {
      $class_type = 'UpdateQuery_' . $this->driver();
      if (!class_exists($class_type)) {
        $class_type = 'UpdateQuery';
      }
    }
    return new $class_type($this, $table, $options);
  }

  /**
   * Prepare and return a DELETE query object with the specified ID.
   *
   * @see DeleteQuery
   * @param $options
   *   An array of options on the query.
   * @return
   *   A new DeleteQuery object.
   */
  public function delete($table, Array $options = array()) {
    static $class_type;
    if (empty($class_type)) {
      $class_type = 'DeleteQuery_' . $this->driver();
      if (!class_exists($class_type)) {
        $class_type = 'DeleteQuery';
      }
    }
    return new $class_type($this, $table, $options);
  }

  /**
   * Returns a DatabaseSchema object for manipulating the schema of this database.
   *
   * This method will lazy-load the appropriate schema library file.
   *
   * @return
   *   The DatabaseSchema object for this connection.
   */
  public function schema() {
    static $schema;
    if (empty($schema)) {
      $class_type = 'DatabaseSchema_' . $this->driver();
      $schema = new $class_type($this);
    }
    return $schema;
  }

  /**
   * Escapes a table name string.
   *
   * Force all table names to be strictly alphanumeric-plus-underscore.
   * For some database drivers, it may also wrap the table name in
   * database-specific escape characters.
   *
   * @return
   *   The sanitized table name string.
   */
  public function escapeTable($table) {
    return preg_replace('/[^A-Za-z0-9_]+/', '', $string);
  }

  /**
   * Returns a new DatabaseTransaction object on this connection.
   *
   * @param $required
   *   If executing an operation that absolutely must use transactions, specify
   *   TRUE for this parameter.  If the connection does not support transactions,
   *   this method will throw an exception and the operation will not be possible.
   * @see DatabaseTransaction
   */
  public function startTransaction($required = FALSE) {
    static $class_type;
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    if ($required && !$this->supportsTransactions()) {
      throw new TransactionsNotSupportedException();
    }
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    if (empty($class_type)) {
      $class_type = 'DatabaseTransaction_' . $this->driver();
      if (!class_exists($class_type)) {
        $class_type = 'DatabaseTransaction';
      }
    }
    return new $class_type($this);
  }

  /**
   * Runs a limited-range query on this database object.
   *
   * Use this as a substitute for ->query() when a subset of the query is to be
   * returned.
   * User-supplied arguments to the query should be passed in as separate parameters
   * so that they can be properly escaped to avoid SQL injection attacks.
   *
   * @param $query
   *   A string containing an SQL query.
   * @param $args
   *   An array of values to substitute into the query at placeholder markers.
   * @param $from
   *   The first result row to return.
   * @param $count
   *   The maximum number of result rows to return.
   * @param $options
   *   An array of options on the query.
   * @return
   *   A database query result resource, or NULL if the query was not executed
   *   correctly.
   */
   abstract public function queryRange($query, Array $args, $from, $count, Array $options);

  /**
   * Runs a SELECT query and stores its results in a temporary table.
   *
   * Use this as a substitute for ->query() when the results need to stored
   * in a temporary table. Temporary tables exist for the duration of the page
   * request.
   * User-supplied arguments to the query should be passed in as separate parameters
   * so that they can be properly escaped to avoid SQL injection attacks.
   *
   * Note that if you need to know how many results were returned, you should do
   * a SELECT COUNT(*) on the temporary table afterwards.
   *
   * @param $query
   *   A string containing a normal SELECT SQL query.
   * @param $args
   *   An array of values to substitute into the query at placeholder markers.
   * @param $tablename
   *   The name of the temporary table to select into. This name will not be
   *   prefixed as there is no risk of collision.
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   * @param $options
   *   An associative array of options to control how the query is run.  See
   *   the documentation for DatabaseConnection::defaultOptions() for details.
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   * @return
   *   A database query result resource, or FALSE if the query was not executed
   *   correctly.
   */
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   abstract function queryTemporary($query, Array $args, $tablename, $options = array());
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  /**
   * Returns the type of database driver.
   *
   * This is not necessarily the same as the type of the database itself.
   * For instance, there could be two MySQL drivers, mysql and mysql_mock.
   * This function would return different values for each, but both would
   * return "mysql" for databaseType().
   */
  abstract public function driver();

  /**
   * Determine if this driver supports transactions.
   */
  abstract public function supportsTransactions();

  /**
   * Returns the type of the database being accessed.
   */
  abstract public function databaseType();

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  /**
   * Gets any special processing requirements for the condition operator.
   *
   * Some condition types require special processing, such as IN, because
   * the value data they pass in is not a simple value.  This is a simple
   * overridable lookup function.  Database connections should define only
   * those operators they wish to be handled differently than the default.
   *
   * @see DatabaseCondition::compile().
   * @param $operator
   *   The condition operator, such as "IN", "BETWEEN", etc.  Case-sensitive.
   * @return
   *   The extra handling directives for the specified operator, or NULL.
   */
  abstract public function mapConditionOperator($operator);
}

/**
 * Primary front-controller for the database system.
 *
 * This class is uninstantiatable and un-extendable.  It acts to encapsulate
 * all control and shepherding of database connections into a single location
 * without the use of globals.
 *
 */
abstract class Database {

  /**
   * Flag to indicate a query call should simply return NULL.
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   *
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   * This is used for queries that have no reasonable return value
   * anyway, such as INSERT statements to a table without a serial
   * primary key.
   */
  const RETURN_NULL = 0;
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  /**
   * Flag to indicate a query call should return the prepared statement.
   */
  const RETURN_STATEMENT = 1;

  /**
   * Flag to indicate a query call should return the number of affected rows.
   */
  const RETURN_AFFECTED = 2;
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  /**
   * Flag to indicate a query call should return the "last insert id".
   */
  const RETURN_INSERT_ID = 3;
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  /**
   * An nested array of all active connections.  It is keyed by database name and target.
   *
   * @var array
   */
  static protected $connections = array();

  /**
   * A processed copy of the database connection information from settings.php
   *
   * @var array
   */
  static protected $databaseInfo = NULL;

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  /**
   * A list of key/target credentials to simply ignore.
   *
   * @var array
   */
  static protected $ignoreTargets = array();

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  /**
   * The key of the currently active database connection.
   *
   * @var string
   */
  static protected $activeKey = 'default';

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  /**
   * An array of active query log objects.
   *
   * Every connection has one and only one logger object for all targets
   * and logging keys.
   *
   * array(
   *   '$db_key' => DatabaseLog object.
   * );
   *
   * @var array
   */
  static protected $logs = array();

  /**
   * Start logging a given logging key on the specified connection.
   *
   * @see DatabaseLog
   * @param $logging_key
   *   The logging key to log.
   * @param $key
   *   The database connection key for which we want to log.
   * @return
   *   The query log object.  Note that the log object does support richer
   *   methods than the few exposed through the Database class, so in some
   *   cases it may be desirable to access it directly.
   */
  final public static function startLog($logging_key, $key = 'default') {
    if (empty(self::$logs[$key])) {
      self::$logs[$key] = new DatabaseLog($key);

      // Every target already active for this connection key needs to have
      // the logging object associated with it.
      if (!empty(self::$connections[$key])) {
        foreach (self::$connections[$key] as $connection) {
          $connection->setLogger(self::$logs[$key]);
        }
      }
    }

    self::$logs[$key]->start($logging_key);
    return self::$logs[$key];
  }

  /**
   * Retrieve the queries logged on for given logging key.
   *
   * This method also ends logging for the specified key.  To get the query log
   * to date without ending the logger request the logging object by starting
   * it again (which does nothing to an open log key) and call methods on it as
   * desired.
   *
   * @see DatabaseLog
   * @param $logging_key
   *   The logging key to log.
   * @param $key
   *   The database connection key for which we want to log.
   * @return
   *   The query log for the specified logging key and connection.
   */
  final public static function getLog($logging_key, $key = 'default') {
    if (empty(self::$logs[$key])) {
      return NULL;
    }
    $queries = self::$logs[$key]->get($logging_key);
    self::$logs[$key]->end($logging_key);
    return $queries;
  }

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  /**
   * Gets the active connection object for the specified target.
   *
   * @return
   *   The active connection object.
   */
  final public static function getActiveConnection($target = 'default') {
    // This could just be a call to getConnection(), but that's an extra
    // method call for every single query.
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    if (!empty(self::$ignoreTargets[self::$activeKey][$target])) {
      $target = 'default';
    }

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    if (!isset(self::$connections[self::$activeKey][$target])) {
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      // If we're trying to open a target that doesn't exist, we need to know
      // what the actual target we got was.
      $target = self::openConnection(self::$activeKey, $target);
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    }

    return isset(self::$connections[self::$activeKey][$target]) ? self::$connections[self::$activeKey][$target] : NULL;
  }

  /**
   * Gets the connection object for the specified database key and target.
   *
   * @return
   *   The corresponding connection object.
   */
  final public static function getConnection($key = 'default', $target = 'default') {
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    if (!empty(self::$ignoreTargets[$key][$target])) {
      $target = 'default';
    }

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    if (!isset(self::$connections[$key][$target])) {
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      // If we're trying to open a target that doesn't exist, we need to know
      // what the actual target we got was.
      $target = self::openConnection(self::$activeKey, $target);
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    }

    return isset(self::$connections[$key][$target]) ? self::$connections[$key][$target] : NULL;
  }

  /**
   * Determine if there is an active connection.
   *
   * Note that this method will return FALSE if no connection has been established
   * yet, even if one could be.
   *
   * @return
   *   TRUE if there is at least one database connection established, FALSE otherwise.
   */
  final public static function isActiveConnection() {
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    return !empty(self::$activeKey) && !empty(self::$connections) && !empty(self::$connections[self::$activeKey]);
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  }

  /**
   * Set the active connection to the specified key.
   *
   * @return
   *   The previous database connection key.
   */
  final public static function setActiveConnection($key = 'default') {
    if (empty(self::$databaseInfo)) {
      self::parseConnectionInfo();
    }

    if (!empty(self::$databaseInfo[$key])) {
      $old_key = self::$activeKey;
      self::$activeKey = $key;
      return $old_key;
    }
  }

  /**
   * Process the configuration file for database information.
   */
  final protected static function parseConnectionInfo() {
    global $databases;

    if (empty($databases)) {
      _db_need_install();
    }
    $databaseInfo = $databases;

    foreach ($databaseInfo as $index => $info) {
      foreach ($databaseInfo[$index] as $target => $value) {
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        // If there is no "driver" property, then we assume it's an array of
        // possible connections for this target.  Pick one at random.  That
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        // allows us to have, for example, multiple slave servers.
        if (empty($value['driver'])) {
          $databaseInfo[$index][$target] = $databaseInfo[$index][$target][mt_rand(0, count($databaseInfo[$index][$target]) - 1)];
        }
      }
    }

    self::$databaseInfo = $databaseInfo;
  }
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  /**
   * Add database connection info for a given key/target.
   *
   * This method allows the addition of new connection credentials at runtime.
   * Under normal circumstances the preferred way to specify database credentials
   * is via settings.php.  However, this method allows them to be added at
   * arbitrary times, such as during unit tests, when connecting to admin-defined
   * third party databases, etc.
   *
   * If the given key/target pair already exists, this method will be ignored.
   *
   * @param $key
   *   The database key.
   * @param $target
   *   The database target name.
   * @param $info
   *   The database connection information, as it would be defined in settings.php.
   *   Note that the structure of this array will depend on the database driver
   *   it is connecting to.
   */
  public static function addConnectionInfo($key, $target, $info) {
    if (empty(self::$databaseInfo[$key][$target])) {
      self::$databaseInfo[$key][$target] = $info;
    }
  }

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  /**
   * Gets information on the specified database connection.
   *
   * @param $connection
   *   The connection key for which we want information.
   */
  final public static function getConnectionInfo($key = 'default') {
    if (empty(self::$databaseInfo)) {
      self::parseConnectionInfo();
    }

    if (!empty(self::$databaseInfo[$key])) {
      return self::$databaseInfo[$key];
    }
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  }

  /**
   * Open a connection to the server specified by the given key and target.
   *
   * @param $key
   *   The database connection key, as specified in settings.php.  The default
   *   is "default".
   * @param $target
   *   The database target to open.  If the specified target does not exist,
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   *   the "default" target will be used instead.
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   * @return
   *   The name of the target that was actually opened.
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   */
  final protected static function openConnection($key, $target) {
    global $db_prefix;

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    if (empty(self::$databaseInfo)) {
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      self::parseConnectionInfo();
    }
    try {
      // If the requested database does not exist then it is an unrecoverable error.
      // If the requested target does not exist, however, we fall back to the default
      // target.  The target is typically either "default" or "slave", indicating to
      // use a slave SQL server if one is available.  If it's not available, then the
      // default/master server is the correct server to use.
      if (!isset(self::$databaseInfo[$key])) {
        throw new Exception('DB does not exist');
      }
      if (!isset(self::$databaseInfo[$key][$target])) {
        $target = 'default';
      }

      if (!$driver = self::$databaseInfo[$key][$target]['driver']) {
        throw new Exception('Drupal is not set up');
      }
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      // We cannot rely on the registry yet, because the registry requires
      // an open database connection.
      $driver_class = 'DatabaseConnection_' . $driver;
991
      require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/database/' . $driver . '/database.inc';
992
      self::$connections[$key][$target] = new $driver_class(self::$databaseInfo[$key][$target]);
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      self::$connections[$key][$target]->setTarget($target);

      // If we have any active logging objects for this connection key, we need
      // to associate them with the connection we just opened.
      if (!empty(self::$logs[$key])) {
        self::$connections[$key][$target]->setLogger(self::$logs[$key]);
      }
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      // We need to pass around the simpletest database prefix in the request
      // and we put that in the user_agent header.
      if (preg_match("/^simpletest\d+$/", $_SERVER['HTTP_USER_AGENT'])) {
        $db_prefix = $_SERVER['HTTP_USER_AGENT'];
      }
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      // Return the target that was actually opened in case the requested one
      // didn't exist.
      return $target;
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    }
    catch (Exception $e) {
      // It is extremely rare that an exception will be generated here other
      // than when installing.  We therefore intercept it and try the installer,
      // passing on the exception otherwise.
      _db_need_install();
      throw $e;
    }
  }
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  /**
   * Instruct the system to temporarily ignore a given key/target.
   *
   * At times we need to temporarily disable slave queries.  To do so,
   * call this method with the database key and the target to disable.
   * That database key will then always fall back to 'default' for that
   * key, even if it's defined.
   *
   * @param $key
   *   The database connection key.
   * @param $target
   *   The target of the specified key to ignore.
   */
  public static function ignoreTarget($key, $target) {
    self::$ignoreTargets[$key][$target] = TRUE;
  }

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}

/**
 * Exception to mark databases that do not support transations.
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 *
 * This exception will be thrown when a transaction is started that does not
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 * allow for the "silent fallback" of no transaction and the database connection
 * in use does not support transactions.  The calling code must then take
 * appropriate action.
 */
class TransactionsNotSupportedException extends PDOException { }

/**
 * A wrapper class for creating and managing database transactions.
 *
 * Not all databases or database configurations support transactions.  For
 * example, MySQL MyISAM tables do not.  It is also easy to begin a transaction
 * and then forget to commit it, which can lead to connection errors when
 * another transaction is started.
 *
 * This class acts as a wrapper for transactions.  To begin a transaction,
 * simply instantiate it.  When the object goes out of scope and is destroyed
 * it will automatically commit.  It also will check to see if the specified
 * connection supports transactions.  If not, it will simply skip any transaction
 * commands, allowing user-space code to proceed normally.  The only difference
 * is that rollbacks won't actually do anything.
 *
 * In the vast majority of cases, you should not instantiate this class directly.
 * Instead, call ->startTransaction() from the appropriate connection object.
 */
class DatabaseTransaction {

  /**
   * The connection object for this transaction.
   *
   * @var DatabaseConnection
   */
  protected $connection;

  /**
   * Whether or not this connection supports transactions.
   *
   * This can be derived from the connection itself with a method call,
   * but is cached here for performance.
   *
   * @var boolean
   */
  protected $supportsTransactions;

  /**
   * Whether or not this transaction has been rolled back.
   *
   * @var boolean
   */
  protected $hasRolledBack = FALSE;

  /**
   * Whether or not this transaction has been committed.
   *
   * @var boolean
   */
  protected $hasCommitted = FALSE;

  /**
   * Track the number of "layers" of transactions currently active.
1102
   *
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   * On many databases transactions cannot nest.  Instead, we track
   * nested calls to transactions and collapse them into a single
   * transaction.
   *
   * @var int
   */
  protected static $layers = 0;
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  public function __construct(DatabaseConnection $connection) {
    $this->connection = $connection;
    $this->supportsTransactions = $connection->supportsTransactions();

    if (self::$layers == 0 && $this->supportsTransactions) {
      $connection->beginTransaction();
    }
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    ++self::$layers;
  }

  /**
   * Commit this transaction.
   */
  public function commit() {
    --self::$layers;
    if (self::$layers == 0 && $this->supportsTransactions) {
      $this->connection->commit();
      $this->hasCommitted = TRUE;
    }
  }

  /**
   * Roll back this transaction.
   */
  public function rollBack() {
    if ($this->supportsTransactions) {
      $this->connection->rollBack();
      $this->hasRolledBack = TRUE;
    }
  }

  /**
   * Determine if this transaction has already been rolled back.
   *
   * @return
   *   TRUE if the transaction has been rolled back, FALSE otherwise.
   */
  public function hasRolledBack() {
    return $this->hasRolledBack;
  }

  public function __destruct() {
    --self::$layers;
    if (self::$layers == 0 && $this->supportsTransactions && !$this->hasRolledBack && !$this->hasCommitted) {
      $this->connection->commit();
    }
  }

}

/**
 * Prepared statement class.
 *
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 * PDO allows us to extend the PDOStatement class to provide additional
 * functionality beyond that offered by default.  We do need extra
 * functionality.  By default, this class is not driver-specific.  If a given
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 * driver needs to set a custom statement class, it may do so in its constructor.
 *
 * @link http://us.php.net/pdostatement
 */
class DatabaseStatement extends PDOStatement {

  /**
   * Reference to the database connection object for this statement.
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   *
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   * The name $dbh is inherited from PDOStatement.
   *
   * @var DatabaseConnection
   */
  public $dbh;

  protected function __construct($dbh) {
    $this->dbh = $dbh;
    $this->setFetchMode(PDO::FETCH_OBJ);
  }

  /**
   * Executes a prepared statement
   *
   * @param $args
   *   An array of values with as many elements as there are bound parameters in the SQL statement being executed.
   * @param $options
   *   An array of options for this query.
   * @return
   *   TRUE on success, or FALSE on failure.
   */
  public function execute($args, $options) {
    if (isset($options['fetch'])) {
      if (is_string($options['fetch'])) {
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        // Default to an object. Note: db fields will be added to the object
        // before the constructor is run. If you need to assign fields after
        // the constructor is run, see http://drupal.org/node/315092.
        $this->setFetchMode(PDO::FETCH_CLASS, $options['fetch']);
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      }
      else {
        $this->setFetchMode($options['fetch']);
      }
    }
    $this->dbh->lastStatement = $this;
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    $logger = $this->dbh->getLogger();
    if (!empty($logger)) {
      $query_start = microtime(TRUE);
    }

    $return = parent::execute($args);

    if (!empty($logger)) {
      $query_end = microtime(TRUE);
      $logger->log($this, $args, $query_end - $query_start);
    }

    return $return;
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  }

  /**
   * Returns an entire single column of a result set as an indexed array.
   *
   * Note that this method will run the result set to the end.
   *
   * @param $index
   *   The index of the column number to fetch.
   * @return
   *   An indexed array.
   */
  public function fetchCol($index = 0) {
    return $this->fetchAll(PDO::FETCH_COLUMN, $index);
  }

  /**
   * Returns an entire result set as an associative array keyed by the named field.
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   *
   * If the given key appears multiple times, later records will overwrite
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   * earlier ones.
   *
   * Note that this method will run the result set to the end.
   *
   * @param $key
   *   The name of the field on which to index the array.
   * @param $fetch
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   *   The fetchmode to use.  If set to   PDO::FETCH_ASSOC, PDO::FETCH_NUM, or
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   *   PDO::FETCH_BOTH the returned value with be an array of arrays.  For any
   *   other value it will be an array of objects.
   * @return
   *   An associative array.
   */
  public function fetchAllAssoc($key, $fetch = PDO::FETCH_OBJ) {
    $return = array();
    $this->setFetchMode($fetch);
    if (in_array($fetch, array(PDO::FETCH_ASSOC, PDO::FETCH_NUM, PDO::FETCH_BOTH))) {
      foreach ($this as $record) {
        $return[$record[$key]] = $record;
      }
    }
    else {
      foreach ($this as $record) {
        $return[$record->$key] = $record;
      }
    }
    return $return;
  }

  /**
   * Returns the entire result set as a single associative array.
   *
   * This method is only useful for two-column result sets.  It will return
   * an associative array where the key is one column from the result set
   * and the value is another field.  In most cases, the default of the first two
   * columns is appropriate.
   *
   * Note that this method will run the result set to the end.
   *
   * @param $key_index
   *   The numeric index of the field to use as the array key.
   * @param $value_index
   *   The numeric index of the field to use as the array value.
   * @return
   *   An associative array.
   */
  public function fetchAllKeyed($key_index = 0, $value_index = 1) {
    $return = array();
    $this->setFetchMode(PDO::FETCH_NUM);
    foreach ($this as $record) {
      $return[$record[$key_index]] = $record[$value_index];
    }
    return $return;
  }

  /**
   * Return a single field out of the current
   *
   * @param $index
   *   The numeric index of the field to return.  Defaults to the first field.
   * @return
   *   A single field from the next record.
   */
  public function fetchField($index = 0) {
    return $this->fetchColumn($index);
  }

  /**
   * Fetches the next row and returns it as an associative array.
   *
   * This method corresponds to PDOStatement::fetchObject(),
   * but for associative arrays.  For some reason PDOStatement does
   * not have a corresponding array helper method, so one is added.
   *
   * @return
   *   An associative array.
   */
  public function fetchAssoc() {
    return $this->fetch(PDO::FETCH_ASSOC);
  }
}

/**
 * The following utility functions are simply convenience wrappers.
 * They should never, ever have any database-specific code in them.
 */

/**
 * Execute an arbitrary query string against the active database.
 *
 * Do not use this function for INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE queries.  Those should
 * be handled via the appropriate query builder factory.  Use this function for
 * SELECT queries that do not require a query builder.
 *
 * @see DatabaseConnection::defaultOptions()
 * @param $query
 *   The prepared statement query to run.  Although it will accept both
 *   named and unnamed placeholders, named placeholders are strongly preferred
 *   as they are more self-documenting.
 * @param $args
 *   An array of values to substitute into the query.  If the query uses named
 *   placeholders, this is an associative array in any order.  If the query uses
 *   unnamed placeholders (?), this is an indexed array and the order must match
 *   the order of placeholders in the query string.
 * @param $options
 *   An array of options to control how the query operates.
 * @return
 *   A prepared statement object, already executed.
 */
function db_query($query, $args = array(), $options = array()) {
  if (!is_array($args)) {
    $args = func_get_args();
    array_shift($args);
  }
  list($query, $args, $options) = _db_query_process_args($query, $args, $options);
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  return Database::getActiveConnection($options['target'])->query($query, $args, $options);
}

/**
 * Execute an arbitrary query string against the active database, restricted to a specified range.
 *
 * @see DatabaseConnection::defaultOptions()
 * @param $query
 *   The prepared statement query to run.  Although it will accept both
 *   named and unnamed placeholders, named placeholders are strongly preferred
 *   as they are more self-documenting.
 * @param $args
 *   An array of values to substitute into the query.  If the query uses named
 *   placeholders, this is an associative array in any order.  If the query uses
 *   unnamed placeholders (?), this is an indexed array and the order must match
 *   the order of placeholders in the query string.
 * @param $from
 *   The first record from the result set to return.
 * @param $limit
 *   The number of records to return from the result set.
 * @param $options
 *   An array of options to control how the query operates.
 * @return
 *   A prepared statement object, already executed.
 */
function db_query_range($query, $args, $from = 0, $count = 0, $options = array()) {
  if (!is_array($args)) {
    $args = func_get_args();
    array_shift($args);
    $count = array_pop($args);
    $from = array_pop($args);
  }
  list($query, $args, $options) = _db_query_process_args($query, $args, $options);
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  return Database::getActiveConnection($options['target'])->queryRange($query, $args, $from, $count, $options);
}

/**
 * Execute a query string against the active database and save the result set to a temp table.
 *
 * @see DatabaseConnection::defaultOptions()
 * @param $query
 *   The prepared statement query to run.  Although it will accept both
 *   named and unnamed placeholders, named placeholders are strongly preferred
 *   as they are more self-documenting.
 * @param $args
 *   An array of values to substitute into the query.  If the query uses named
 *   placeholders, this is an associative array in any order.  If the query uses
 *   unnamed placeholders (?), this is an indexed array and the order must match
 *   the order of placeholders in the query string.
 * @param $from
 *   The first record from the result set to return.
 * @param $limit
 *   The number of records to return from the result set.
 * @param $options
 *   An array of options to control how the query operates.
 */
function db_query_temporary($query, $args, $tablename, $options = array()) {
  if (!is_array($args)) {
    $args = func_get_args();
    array_shift($args);
  }
  list($query, $args, $options) = _db_query_process_args($query, $args, $options);
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  return Database::getActiveConnection($options['target'])->queryTemporary($query, $args, $tablename, $options);
}

/**
 * Returns a new InsertQuery object for the active database.
 *
 * @param $table
 *   The table into which to insert.
 * @param $options
 *   An array of options to control how the query operates.
 * @return
 *   A new InsertQuery object for this connection.
 */
function db_insert($table, Array $options = array()) {
  if (empty($options['target']) || $options['target'] == 'slave') {
    $options['target'] = 'default';
  }
  return Database::getActiveConnection($options['target'])->insert($table, $options);
}

/**
 * Returns a new MergeQuery object for the active database.
 *
 * @param $table
 *   The table into which to merge.
 * @param $options
 *   An array of options to control how the query operates.
 * @return
 *   A new MergeQuery object for this connection.
 */
function db_merge($table, Array $options = array()) {
  if (empty($options['target']) || $options['target'] == 'slave') {
    $options['target'] = 'default';
  }
  return Database::getActiveConnection($options['target'])->merge($table, $options);
}

/**
 * Returns a new UpdateQuery object for the active database.
 *
 * @param $table
 *   The table to update.
 * @param $options
 *   An array of options to control how the query operates.
 * @return
 *   A new UpdateQuery object for this connection.
 */
function db_update($table, Array $options = array()) {
  if (empty($options['target']) || $options['target'] == 'slave') {
    $options['target'] = 'default';
  }
  return Database::getActiveConnection($options['target'])->update($table, $options);
}

/**
 * Returns a new DeleteQuery object for the active database.
 *
 * @param $table
 *   The table from which to delete.
 * @param $options
 *   An array of options to control how the query operates.
 * @return
 *   A new DeleteQuery object for this connection.
 */
function db_delete($table, Array $options = array()) {
  if (empty($options['target']) || $options['target'] == 'slave') {
    $options['target'] = 'default';
  }
  return Database::getActiveConnection($options['target'])->delete($table, $options);
}

/**
 * Returns a new SelectQuery object for the active database.
 *
 * @param $table
 *   The base table for this query.
 * @param $alias
 *   The alias for the base table of this query.
 * @param $options
 *   An array of options to control how the query operates.
 * @return
 *   A new SelectQuery object for this connection.
 */
function db_select($table, $alias = NULL, Array $options = array()) {
  if (empty($options['target'])) {
    $options['target'] = 'default';
  }
  return Database::getActiveConnection($options['target'])->select($table, $alias, $options);
}

/**
 * Sets a new active database.
 *
 * @param $key
 *   The key in the $databases array to set as the default database.
 * @returns
 *   The key of the formerly active database.
 */
function db_set_active($key = 'default') {
  return Database::setActiveConnection($key);
}

/**
 * Determine if there is an active connection.
 *
 * Note that this method will return FALSE if no connection has been established
 * yet, even if one could be.
 *
 * @return
 *   TRUE if there is at least one database connection established, FALSE otherwise.
 */
function db_is_active() {
  return Database::isActiveConnection();
}

/**
 * Restrict a dynamic table, column or constraint name to safe characters.
 *
 * Only keeps alphanumeric and underscores.
 *
 * @param $table
 *   The table name to escape.
 * @return
 *   The escaped table name as a string.
 */
function db_escape_table($table) {
  return Database::getActiveConnection()->escapeTable($table);
}

/**
 * Perform an SQL query and return success or failure.
 *
 * @param $sql
 *   A string containing a complete SQL query.  %-substitution
 *   parameters are not supported.
 * @return
 *   An array containing the keys:
 *     success: a boolean indicating whether the query succeeded
 *     query: the SQL query executed, passed through check_plain()
 */
function update_sql($sql) {
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  $result = Database::getActiveConnection()->query($sql);
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  return array('success' => $result !== FALSE, 'query' => check_plain($sql));
}

/**
 * Generate placeholders for an array of query arguments of a single type.
 *
 * Given a Schema API field type, return correct %-placeholders to
 * embed in a query
 *
 * @todo This may be possible to remove in favor of db_select().
 * @param $arguments
 *   An array with at least one element.
 * @param $type
 *   The Schema API type of a field (e.g. 'int', 'text', or 'varchar').
 */
function db_placeholders($arguments, $type = 'int') {
  $placeholder = db_type_placeholder($type);
  return implode(',', array_fill(0, count($arguments), $placeholder));
}

/**
 * Wraps the given table.field entry with a DISTINCT(). The wrapper is added to
 * the SELECT list entry of the given query and the resulting query is returned.
 * This function only applies the wrapper if a DISTINCT doesn't already exist in
 * the query.
 *
 * @todo Remove this.
 * @param $table
 *   Table containing the field to set as DISTINCT
 * @param $field
 *   Field to set as DISTINCT
 * @param $query
 *   Query to apply the wrapper to
 * @return
 *   SQL query with the DISTINCT wrapper surrounding the given table.field.
 */
function db_distinct_field($table, $field, $query) {
  return Database::getActiveConnection()->distinctField($table, $field, $query);
}

/**
 * Retrieve the name of the currently active database driver, such as
 * "mysql" or "pgsql".
 *
 * @return The name of the currently active database driver.
 */
function db_driver() {
  return Database::getActiveConnection()->driver();
}

/**
 * @} End of "defgroup database".
 */


/**
 * @ingroup schemaapi
 * @{
 */


/**
 * Create a new table from a Drupal table definition.
 *
 * @param $ret
 *   Array to which query results will be added.
 * @param $name
 *   The name of the table to create.
 * @param $table
 *   A Schema API table definition array.
 */
function db_create_table(&$ret, $name, $table) {
  return Database::getActiveConnection()->schema()->createTable($ret, $name, $table);
}

/**
 * Return an array of field names from an array of key/index column specifiers.
 *
 * This is usually an identity function but if a key/index uses a column prefix
 * specification, this function extracts just the name.
 *
 * @param $fields
 *   An array of key/index column specifiers.
 * @return
 *   An array of field names.
 */
function db_field_names($fields) {
  return Database::getActiveConnection()->schema()->fieldNames($fields);
}

/**
 * Check if a table exists.
 */
function db_table_exists($table) {
  return Database::getActiveConnection()->schema()->tableExists($table);
}

/**
 * Check if a column exists in the given table.
 */
function db_column_exists($table, $column) {
  return Database::getActiveConnection()->schema()->columnExists($table, $column);
}


/**
 * Given a Schema API field type, return the correct %-placeholder.
 *
 * Embed the placeholder in a query to be passed to db_query and and pass as an
 * argument to db_query a value of the specified type.
 *
 * @todo Remove this after all queries are converted to type-agnostic form.
 * @param $type
 *   The Schema API type of a field.
 * @return
 *   The placeholder string to embed in a query for that type.
 */
function db_type_placeholder($type) {
  switch ($type) {
    case 'varchar':
    case 'char':
    case 'text':
    case 'datetime':
      return '\'%s\'';

    case 'numeric':
      // Numeric values are arbitrary precision numbers.  Syntacically, numerics
      // should be specified directly in SQL. However, without single quotes
      // the %s placeholder does not protect against non-numeric characters such
      // as spaces which would expose us to SQL injection.
      return '%n';

    case 'serial':
    case 'int':
      return '%d';

    case 'float':
      return '%f';

    case 'blob':
      return '%b';
  }

  // There is no safe value to return here, so return something that
  // will cause the query to fail.
  return 'unsupported type ' . $type . 'for db_type_placeholder';
}


function _db_create_keys_sql($spec) {
  return Database::getActiveConnection()->schema()->createKeysSql($spec);
}

/**
 * This maps a generic data type in combination with its data size
 * to the engine-specific data type.
 */
function db_type_map() {
  return Database::getActiveConnection()->schema()->getFieldTypeMap();
}

/**
 * Rename a table.
 *
 * @param $ret
 *   Array to which query results will be added.
 * @param $table
 *   The table to be renamed.
 * @param $new_name
 *   The new name for the table.
 */
function db_rename_table(&$ret, $table, $new_name) {
  return Database::getActiveConnection()->schema()->renameTable($ret, $table, $new_name);
}

/**
 * Drop a table.
 *
 * @param $ret
 *   Array to which query results will be added.
 * @param $table
 *   The table to be dropped.
 */
function db_drop_table(&$ret, $table) {
  return Database::getActiveConnection()->schema()->dropTable($ret, $table);
}

/**
 * Add a new field to a table.
 *
 * @param $ret
 *   Array to which query results will be added.
 * @param $table
 *   Name of the table to be altered.
 * @param $field
 *   Name of the field to be added.
 * @param $spec
 *   The field specification array, as taken from a schema definition.
 *   The specification may also contain the key 'initial', the newly
 *   created field will be set to the value of the key in all rows.
 *   This is most useful for creating NOT NULL columns with no default
 *   value in existing tables.
 * @param $keys_new
 *   Optional keys and indexes specification to be created on the
 *   table along with adding the field. The format is the same as a
 *   table specification but without the 'fields' element.  If you are
 *   adding a type 'serial' field, you MUST specify at least one key
 *   or index including it in this array. @see db_change_field for more
 *   explanation why.
 */
function db_add_field(&$ret, $table, $field, $spec, $keys_new = array()) {
  return Database::getActiveConnection()->schema()->addField($ret, $table, $field, $spec, $keys_new);
}

/**
 * Drop a field.
 *
 * @param $ret
 *   Array to which query results will be added.
 * @param $table
 *   The table to be altered.
 * @param $field
 *   The field to be dropped.
 */
function db_drop_field(&$ret, $table, $field) {
  return Database::getActiveConnection()->schema()->dropField($ret, $table, $field);
}

/**
 * Set the default value for a field.
 *
 * @param $ret
 *   Array to which query results will be added.
 * @param $table
 *   The table to be altered.
 * @param $field
 *   The field to be altered.
 * @param $default
 *   Default value to be set. NULL for 'default NULL'.
 */
function db_field_set_default(&$ret, $table, $field, $default) {
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  return Database::getActiveConnection()->schema()->fieldSetDefault($ret, $table, $field, $default);
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}

/**
 * Set a field to have no default value.
 *
 * @param $ret
 *   Array to which query results will be added.
 * @param $table
 *   The table to be altered.
 * @param $field
 *   The field to be altered.
 */
function db_field_set_no_default(&$ret, $table, $field) {
  return Database::getActiveConnection()->schema()->fieldSetNoDefault($ret, $table, $field);
}

/**
 * Add a primary key.
 *
 * @param $ret
 *   Array to which query results will be added.
 * @param $table
 *   The table to be altered.
 * @param $fields
 *   Fields for the primary key.
 */
function db_add_primary_key(&$ret, $table, $fields) {
  return Database::getActiveConnection()->schema()->addPrimaryKey($ret, $table, $field);
}

/**
 * Drop the primary key.
 *
 * @param $ret
 *   Array to which query results will be added.
 * @param $table
 *   The table to be altered.
 */
function db_drop_primary_key(&$ret, $table) {
  return Database::getActiveConnection()->schema()->dropPrimaryKey($ret, $table);
}

/**
 * Add a unique key.
 *
 * @param $ret
 *   Array to which query results will be added.
 * @param $table
 *   The table to be altered.
 * @param $name
 *   The name of the key.
 * @param $fields
 *   An array of field names.
 */
function db_add_unique_key(&$ret, $table, $name, $fields) {
  return Database::getActiveConnection()->schema()->addUniqueKey($ret, $table, $name, $fields);
}

/**
 * Drop a unique key.
 *
 * @param $ret
 *   Array to which query results will be added.
 * @param $table
 *   The table to be altered.
 * @param $name
 *   The name of the key.
 */
function db_drop_unique_key(&$ret, $table, $name) {
  return Database::getActiveConnection()->schema()->dropUniqueKey($ret, $table, $name);
}

/**
 * Add an index.
 *
 * @param $ret
 *   Array to which query results will be added.
 * @param $table
 *   The table to be altered.
 * @param $name
 *   The name of the index.
 * @param $fields
 *   An array of field names.
 */
function db_add_index(&$ret, $table, $name, $fields) {
  return Database::getActiveConnection()->schema()->addIndex($ret, $table, $name, $fields);
}

/**
 * Drop an index.
 *
 * @param $ret
 *   Array to which query results will be added.
 * @param $table
 *   The table to be altered.
 * @param $name
 *   The name of the index.
 */
function db_drop_index(&$ret, $table, $name) {
  return Database::getActiveConnection()->schema()->addIndex($ret, $table, $name);
}

/**
 * Change a field definition.
 *
 * IMPORTANT NOTE: To maintain database portability, you have to explicitly
 * recreate all indices and primary keys that are using the changed field.
 *
 * That means that you have to drop all affected keys and indexes with
 * db_drop_{primary_key,unique_key,index}() before calling db_change_field().
 * To recreate the keys and indices, pass the key definitions as the
 * optional $keys_new argument directly to db_change_field().
 *
 * For example, suppose you have:
 * @code
 * $schema['foo'] = array(
 *   'fields' => array(
 *     'bar' => array('type' => 'int', 'not null' => TRUE)
 *   ),
 *   'primary key' => array('bar')
 * );
 * @endcode
 * and you want to change foo.bar to be type serial, leaving it as the
 * primary key.  The correct sequence is:
 * @code
 * db_drop_primary_key($ret, 'foo');
 * db_change_field($ret, 'foo', 'bar', 'bar',
 *   array('type' => 'serial', 'not null' => TRUE),
 *   array('primary key' => array('bar')));
 * @endcode
 *
 * The reasons for this are due to the different database engines:
 *
 * On PostgreSQL, changing a field definition involves adding a new field
 * and dropping an old one which* causes any indices, primary keys and
 * sequences (from serial-type fields) that use the changed field to be dropped.
 *
 * On MySQL, all type 'serial' fields must be part of at least one key
 * or index as soon as they are created.  You cannot use
 * db_add_{primary_key,unique_key,index}() for this purpose because
 * the ALTER TABLE command will fail to add the column without a key
 * or index specification.  The solution is to use the optional
 * $keys_new argument to create the key or index at the same time as
 * field.
 *
 * You could use db_add_{primary_key,unique_key,index}() in all cases
 * unless you are converting a field to be type serial. You can use
 * the $keys_new argument in all cases.
 *
 * @param $ret
 *   Array to which query results will be added.
 * @param $table
 *   Name of the table.
 * @param $field
 *   Name of the field to change.
 * @param $field_new
 *   New name for the field (set to the same as $field if you don't want to change the name).
 * @param $spec
 *   The field specification for the new field.
 * @param $keys_new
 *   Optional keys and indexes specification to be created on the
 *   table along with changing the field. The format is the same as a
 *   table specification but without the 'fields' element.
 */

function db_change_field(&$ret, $table, $field, $field_new, $spec, $keys_new = array()) {
  return Database::getActiveConnection()->schema()->changeField($ret, $table, $field, $field_new, $spec, $keys_new);
}

/**
 * @} End of "ingroup schemaapi".
 */

/**
 * Prints a themed maintenance page with the 'Site offline' text,
 * adding the provided error message in the case of 'display_errors'
 * set to on. Ends the page request; no return.
 */
function _db_error_page($error = '') {
  global $db_type;
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  drupal_init_language();
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  drupal_maintenance_theme();
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  drupal_set_header($_SERVER['SERVER_PROTOCOL'] . ' 503 Service Unavailable');
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  drupal_set_title('Site offline');
}

/**
 * @ingroup database-legacy
 *
 * These functions are no longer necessary, as the DatabaseStatement object
 * offers this and much more functionality.  They are kept temporarily for backward
 * compatibility during conversion and should be removed as soon as possible.
 *
 * @{
 */

function db_fetch_object(DatabaseStatement $statement) {
  return $statement->fetch(PDO::FETCH_OBJ);
}

function db_fetch_array(DatabaseStatement $statement) {
  return $statement->fetch(PDO::FETCH_ASSOC);
}

function db_result(DatabaseStatement $statement) {
  return $statement->fetchField();
}

function _db_need_install() {
  if (!function_exists('install_goto')) {
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    include_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/install.inc';
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    install_goto('install.php');
  }
}

/**
 * Backward-compatibility utility.
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 *
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 * This function should be removed after all queries have been converted
 * to the new API.  It is temporary only.
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 *
 * @todo Remove this once the query conversion is complete.
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 */
function _db_query_process_args($query, $args, $options) {

  if (!is_array($options)) {
    $options = array();
  }
  if (empty($options['target'])) {
    $options['target'] = 'default';
  }
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  // Temporary backward-compatibliity hacks.  Remove later.
  $old_query = $query;
  $query = str_replace(array('%n', '%d', '%f', '%b', "'%s'", '%s'), '?', $old_query);
  if ($old_query !== $query) {
    $args = array_values($args);  // The old system allowed named arrays, but PDO doesn't if you use ?.
  }

  // A large number of queries pass FALSE or empty-string for
  // int/float fields because the previous version of db_query()
  // casted them to int/float, resulting in 0.  MySQL PDO happily
  // accepts these values as zero but PostgreSQL PDO does not, and I
  // do not feel like tracking down and fixing every such query at
  // this time.
  if (preg_match_all('/%([dsfb])/', $old_query, $m) > 0) {
    foreach ($m[1] as $idx => $char) {
      switch ($char) {
        case 'd':
          $args[$idx] = (int) $args[$idx];
          break;
        case 'f':
          $args[$idx] = (float) $args[$idx];
          break;
      }
    }
  }

  return array($query, $args, $options);
}


/**
 * Returns the last insert id.
 *
 * @todo Remove this function when all queries have been ported to db_insert().
 * @param $table
 *   The name of the table you inserted into.
 * @param $field
 *   The name of the autoincrement field.
 */
function db_last_insert_id($table, $field) {
  $sequence_name = Database::getActiveConnection()->makeSequenceName($table, $field);
  return Database::getActiveConnection()->lastInsertId($sequence_name);
}

/**
 * Determine the number of rows changed by the preceding query.
 *
 * This may not work, actually, without some tricky temp code.
 *
 * @todo Remove this function when all queries have been ported to db_update().
 */
function db_affected_rows() {
  $statement = Database::getActiveConnection()->lastStatement;
  if (!$statement) {
    return 0;
  }
  return $statement->rowCount();
}

/**
 * Helper function for db_rewrite_sql.
 *
 * Collects JOIN and WHERE statements via hook_db_rewrite_sql()
 * Decides whether to select primary_key or DISTINCT(primary_key)
 *
 * @todo Remove this function when all code has been converted to query_alter.
 * @param $query
 *   Query to be rewritten.
 * @param $primary_table
 *   Name or alias of the table which has the primary key field for this query.
 *   Typical table names would be: {blocks}, {comments}, {forum}, {node},
 *   {menu}, {term_data} or {vocabulary}. However, in most cases the usual
 *   table alias (b, c, f, n, m, t or v) is used instead of the table name.
 * @param $primary_field
 *   Name of the primary field.
 * @param $args
 *   Array of additional arguments.
 * @return
 *   An array: join statements, where statements, field or DISTINCT(field).
 */
function _db_rewrite_sql($query = '', $primary_table = 'n', $primary_field = 'nid', $args = array()) {
  $where = array();
  $join = array();
  $distinct = FALSE;
  foreach (module_implements('db_rewrite_sql') as $module) {
    $result = module_invoke($module, 'db_rewrite_sql', $query, $primary_table, $primary_field, $args);
    if (isset($result) && is_array($result)) {
      if (isset($result['where'])) {
        $where[] = $result['where'];
      }
      if (isset($result['join'])) {
        $join[] = $result['join'];
      }
      if (isset($result['distinct']) && $result['distinct']) {
        $distinct = TRUE;
      }
    }
    elseif (isset($result)) {
      $where[] = $result;
    }
  }

  $where = empty($where) ? '' : '(' . implode(') AND (', $where) . ')';
  $join = empty($join) ? '' : implode(' ', $join);

  return array($join, $where, $distinct);
}

/**
 * Rewrites node, taxonomy and comment queries. Use it for listing queries. Do not
 * use FROM table1, table2 syntax, use JOIN instead.
 *
 * @todo Remove this function when all code has been converted to query_alter.
 * @param $query
 *   Query to be rewritten.
 * @param $primary_table
 *   Name or alias of the table which has the primary key field for this query.
 *   Typical table names would be: {blocks}, {comments}, {forum}, {node},
 *   {menu}, {term_data} or {vocabulary}. However, it is more common to use the
 *   the usual table aliases: b, c, f, n, m, t or v.
 * @param $primary_field
 *   Name of the primary field.
 * @param $args
 *   An array of arguments, passed to the implementations of hook_db_rewrite_sql.
 * @return
 *   The original query with JOIN and WHERE statements inserted from
 *   hook_db_rewrite_sql implementations. nid is rewritten if needed.
 */
function db_rewrite_sql($query, $primary_table = 'n', $primary_field = 'nid',  $args = array()) {
  list($join, $where, $distinct) = _db_rewrite_sql($query, $primary_table, $primary_field, $args);

  if ($distinct) {
    $query = db_distinct_field($primary_table, $primary_field, $query);
  }

  if (!empty($where) || !empty($join)) {
    $pattern = '{
      # Beginning of the string
      ^
      ((?P<anonymous_view>
        # Everything within this set of parentheses is named "anonymous view"
        (?:
          [^()]++                   # anything not parentheses
        |
          \( (?P>anonymous_view) \)          # an open parenthesis, more "anonymous view" and finally a close parenthesis.
        )*
      )[^()]+WHERE)
    }x';
    preg_match($pattern, $query, $matches);
    if ($where) {
      $n = strlen($matches[1]);
      $second_part = substr($query, $n);
      $first_part = substr($matches[1], 0, $n - 5) ." $join WHERE $where AND ( ";
      // PHP 4 does not support strrpos for strings. We emulate it.
      $haystack_reverse = strrev($second_part);
      // No need to use strrev on the needle, we supply GROUP, ORDER, LIMIT
      // reversed.
      foreach (array('PUORG', 'REDRO', 'TIMIL') as $needle_reverse) {
        $pos = strpos($haystack_reverse, $needle_reverse);
        if ($pos !== FALSE) {
          // All needles are five characters long.
          $pos += 5;
          break;
        }
      }
      if ($pos === FALSE) {
        $query = $first_part . $second_part . ')';
      }
      else {
        $query = $first_part . substr($second_part, 0, -$pos) . ')' . substr($second_part, -$pos);
      }
    }
    else {
      $query = $matches[1] . " $join " . substr($query, strlen($matches[1]));
    }
  }

  return $query;
}


/**
 * @} End of "ingroup database-legacy".
 */