INSTALL.txt 17.3 KB
Newer Older
Dries's avatar
Dries committed
1

Dries's avatar
Dries committed
2 3 4
CONTENTS OF THIS FILE
---------------------

5 6
 * Requirements and notes
 * Optional server requirements
Dries's avatar
Dries committed
7
 * Installation
8
 * Building and customizing your site
9
 * Multisite configuration
10
 * Multilingual configuration
11
 * More information
Dries's avatar
Dries committed
12

13 14
REQUIREMENTS AND NOTES
----------------------
15

16 17
Drupal requires:

18 19 20
- A web server with PHP support, for example:
  - Apache 2.0 (or greater) (http://httpd.apache.org/).
  - Nginx 1.1 (or greater) (http://www.nginx.com/).
21
- PHP 5.3.10 (or greater) (http://www.php.net/).
22 23 24 25
- One of the following databases:
  - MySQL 5.0.15 (or greater) (http://www.mysql.com/).
  - MariaDB 5.1.44 (or greater) (http://mariadb.org/). MariaDB is a fully
    compatible drop-in replacement for MySQL.
26 27
  - Percona Server 5.1.70 (or greater) (http://www.percona.com/). Percona
    Server is a backwards-compatible replacement for MySQL.
28 29
  - PostgreSQL 8.3 (or greater) (http://www.postgresql.org/).
  - SQLite 3.4.2 (or greater) (http://www.sqlite.org/).
30

31 32
For more detailed information about Drupal requirements, including a list of
PHP extensions and configurations that are required, see "System requirements"
33
(http://drupal.org/requirements) in the Drupal.org online documentation.
34

35 36
For detailed information on how to configure a test server environment using a
variety of operating systems and web servers, see "Local server setup"
37
(http://drupal.org/node/157602) in the Drupal.org online documentation.
38

39 40 41
Note that all directories mentioned in this document are always relative to the
directory of your Drupal installation, and commands are meant to be run from
this directory (except for the initial commands that create that directory).
42

43 44 45 46 47
OPTIONAL SERVER REQUIREMENTS
----------------------------

- If you want to use Drupal's "Clean URLs" feature on an Apache web server, you
  will need the mod_rewrite module and the ability to use local .htaccess
48 49
  files. For Clean URLs support on IIS, see "Clean URLs with IIS"
  (http://drupal.org/node/3854) in the Drupal.org online documentation.
50

51 52 53 54
- If you plan to use XML-based services such as RSS aggregation, you will need
  PHP's XML extension. This extension is enabled by default on most PHP
  installations.

55 56 57
- To serve gzip compressed CSS and JS files on an Apache web server, you will
  need the mod_headers module and the ability to use local .htaccess files.

58 59 60 61 62 63
- Some Drupal functionality (e.g., checking whether Drupal and contributed
  modules need updates, RSS aggregation, etc.) require that the web server be
  able to go out to the web and download information. If you want to use this
  functionality, you need to verify that your hosting provider or server
  configuration allows the web server to initiate outbound connections. Most web
  hosting setups allow this.
64

65 66 67
INSTALLATION
------------

68
1. Download and extract Drupal.
69

70
   You can obtain the latest Drupal release from http://drupal.org -- the files
71 72
   are available in .tar.gz and .zip formats and can be extracted using most
   compression tools.
73

74
   To download and extract the files, on a typical Unix/Linux command line, use
75 76
   the following commands (assuming you want version x.y of Drupal in .tar.gz
   format):
77

78 79
     wget http://drupal.org/files/projects/drupal-x.y.tar.gz
     tar -zxvf drupal-x.y.tar.gz
80

81 82 83 84 85 86 87
   This will create a new directory drupal-x.y/ containing all Drupal files and
   directories. Then, to move the contents of that directory into a directory
   within your web server's document root or your public HTML directory,
   continue with this command:

     mv drupal-x.y/* drupal-x.y/.htaccess /path/to/your/installation

88
2. Create the Drupal database.
89

90 91 92 93 94 95
   Because Drupal stores all site information in a database, the Drupal
   installer will attempt to create this database for you. If you create the
   database manually, you must grant Drupal certain database privileges (such as
   the ability to create tables).  For details, consult INSTALL.mysql.txt,
   INSTALL.pgsql.txt, or INSTALL.sqlite.txt. You may also need to consult your
   web hosting provider for instructions specific to your web host.
96

97 98
   Take note of the username, password, database name, and hostname as you
   create the database. You will enter this information during the install.
99

100
3. Run the install script.
101 102 103 104 105 106 107

   To run the install script, point your browser to the base URL of your
   website (e.g., http://www.example.com).

   You will be guided through several screens to set up the database, add the
   site maintenance account (the first user, also known as user/1), and provide
   basic web site settings.
108

109
   During installation, several files and directories need to be created, which
110 111 112 113
   the install script will try to do automatically. However, on some hosting
   environments, manual steps are required, and the install script will tell
   you that it cannot proceed until you fix certain issues. This is normal and
   does not indicate a problem with your server.
114

115
   The most common steps you may need to perform are:
116

117
   a. Missing files directory.
118

119 120 121
      The install script will attempt to create a file storage directory in
      the default location at sites/default/files (the location of the files
      directory may be changed after Drupal is installed).
122

123 124 125 126 127
      If auto-creation fails, you can make it work by changing permissions on
      the sites/default directory so that the web server can create the files
      directory within it for you. (If you are creating a multisite
      installation, substitute the correct sites directory for sites/default;
      see the Multisite Configuration section of this file, below.)
128

129 130 131
      For example, on a Unix/Linux command line, you can grant everyone
      (including the web server) permission to write to the sites/default
      directory with this command:
132

133
        chmod a+w sites/default
134

135 136
      Be sure to set the permissions back after the installation is finished!
      Sample command:
137

138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145
        chmod go-w sites/default

      Alternatively, instead of allowing the web server to create the files
      directory for you as described above, you can create it yourself. Sample
      commands from a Unix/Linux command line:

        mkdir sites/default/files
        chmod a+w sites/default/files
146

147
   b. Missing settings file.
148

149 150 151
      Drupal will try to automatically create a settings.php configuration file,
      which is normally in the directory sites/default (to avoid problems when
      upgrading, Drupal is not packaged with this file). If auto-creation fails,
152 153
      you will need to create this file yourself, using the file
      sites/default/default.settings.php as a template.
154

155 156
      For example, on a Unix/Linux command line, you can make a copy of the
      default.settings.php file with the command:
157

158
        cp sites/default/default.settings.php sites/default/settings.php
159

160 161
      Next, grant write privileges to the file to everyone (including the web
      server) with the command:
162

163
        chmod a+w sites/default/settings.php
164

165 166
      Be sure to set the permissions back after the installation is finished!
      Sample command:
167

168
        chmod go-w sites/default/settings.php
169

170
   c. Write permissions after install.
171

172 173 174 175
      The install script will attempt to write-protect the settings.php file and
      the sites/default directory after saving your configuration. If this
      fails, you will be notified, and you can do it manually. Sample commands
      from a Unix/Linux command line:
176

177 178
        chmod go-w sites/default/settings.php
        chmod go-w sites/default
179

180
4. Verify that the site is working.
181

182 183 184 185 186
   When the install script finishes, you will be logged in with the site
   maintenance account on a "Welcome" page. If the default Drupal theme is not
   displaying properly and links on the page result in "Page Not Found" errors,
   you may be experiencing problems with clean URLs. Visit
   http://drupal.org/getting-started/clean-urls to troubleshoot.
187

188
5. Change file system storage settings (optional).
189

190
   The files directory created in step 4 is the default file system path used to
191 192 193
   store all uploaded files, as well as some temporary files created by
   Drupal. After installation, you can modify the file system path to store
   uploaded files in a different location.
194

195
   It is not necessary to modify this path, but you may wish to change it if:
196

197 198 199
   - Your site runs multiple Drupal installations from a single codebase (modify
     the file system path of each installation to a different directory so that
     uploads do not overlap between installations).
200

201 202 203
   - Your site runs on a number of web servers behind a load balancer or reverse
     proxy (modify the file system path on each server to point to a shared file
     repository).
204

205
   - You want to restrict access to uploaded files.
206

207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221
   To modify the file system path:

   a. Ensure that the new location for the path exists and is writable by the
      web server. For example, to create a new directory named uploads and grant
      write permissions, use the following commands on a Unix/Linux command
      line:

        mkdir uploads
        chmod a+w uploads

   b. Navigate to Administration > Configuration > Media > File system, and
      enter the desired path. Note that if you want to use private file storage,
      you need to first enter the path for private files and save the
      configuration, and then change the "Default download method" setting and
      save again.
222 223 224 225 226

   Changing the file system path after files have been uploaded may cause
   unexpected problems on an existing site. If you modify the file system path
   on an existing site, remember to copy all files from the original location
   to the new location.
227

228
6. Revoke documentation file permissions (optional).
229

230 231 232
   Some administrators suggest making the documentation files, especially
   CHANGELOG.txt, non-readable so that the exact version of Drupal you are
   running is slightly more difficult to determine. If you wish to implement
233 234
   this optional security measure, from a Unix/Linux command line you can use
   the following command:
235

236
     chmod a-r CHANGELOG.txt
237

238 239 240
   Note that the example only affects CHANGELOG.txt. To completely hide all
   documentation files from public view, repeat this command for each of the
   Drupal documentation files in the installation directory, substituting the
241 242
   name of each file for CHANGELOG.txt in the example.

243 244 245
   For more information on setting file permissions, see "Modifying Linux,
   Unix, and Mac file permissions" (http://drupal.org/node/202483) or
   "Modifying Windows file permissions" (http://drupal.org/node/202491) in the
246
   Drupal.org online documentation.
247

248
7. Set up independent "cron" maintenance jobs.
249

250 251 252 253 254 255
   Many Drupal modules have tasks that must be run periodically, including the
   Search module (building and updating the index used for keyword searching),
   the Aggregator module (retrieving feeds from other sites), and the System
   module (performing routine maintenance and pruning of database tables). These
   tasks are known as "cron maintenance tasks", named after the Unix/Linux
   "cron" utility.
256

257 258 259 260
   When you install Drupal, its built-in cron feature is enabled, which
   automatically runs the cron tasks periodically, triggered by people visiting
   pages of your site. You can configure the built-in cron feature by navigating
   to Administration > Configuration > System > Cron.
261

262 263
   It is also possible to run the cron tasks independent of site visits; this is
   recommended for most sites. To do this, you will need to set up an automated
264
   process to visit the page /cron on your site, which executes the cron
265
   tasks.
266

267
   The URL of the cron page requires a "cron key" to protect against
268 269 270 271
   unauthorized access. Your site's cron key is automatically generated during
   installation and is specific to your site. The full URL of the page, with the
   cron key, is available in the "Cron maintenance tasks" section of the Status
   report page at Administration > Reports > Status report.
272

273 274
   As an example for how to set up this automated process, you can use the
   crontab utility on Unix/Linux systems. The following crontab line uses the
275
   wget command to visit the cron page, and runs each hour, on the hour:
276

277
   0 * * * * wget -O - -q -t 1 http://example.com/cron/YOURKEY
278

279 280 281
   Replace the text "http://example.com/cron/YOURKEY" in the example with the
   full URL displayed under "Cron maintenance tasks" on the "Status report"
   page.
282

283 284 285 286
   More information about cron maintenance tasks is available at
   http://drupal.org/cron, and sample cron shell scripts can be found in the
   scripts/ directory. (Note that these scripts must be customized like the
   above example, to add your site-specific cron key and domain name.)
287

288 289
BUILDING AND CUSTOMIZING YOUR SITE
----------------------------------
290

291 292 293 294 295
A new installation of Drupal defaults to a very basic configuration. To extend
your site, you use "modules" and "themes". A module is a plugin that adds
functionality to Drupal, while a theme changes the look of your site. The core
of Drupal provides several optional modules and themes, and you can download
more at http://drupal.org/project/modules and http://drupal.org/project/themes
296

297
Do not mix downloaded or custom modules and themes with Drupal's core modules
298 299 300
and themes. Drupal's modules and themes are located in the /core/modules and
/core/themes directories, while the modules and themes you add to Drupal are
normally placed in the /modules and /themes directories. If you run a multisite
301 302
installation, you can also place modules and themes in the site-specific
directories -- see the Multisite Configuration section, below.
303

304
Never edit Drupal's core modules and themes; instead, use the hooks available in
305
the Drupal API. To modify the behavior of Drupal, develop a module as described
306 307 308
at http://drupal.org/developing/modules. To modify the look of Drupal, create a
subtheme as described at http://drupal.org/node/225125, or a completely new
theme as described at http://drupal.org/documentation/theme
309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316

MULTISITE CONFIGURATION
-----------------------

A single Drupal installation can host several Drupal-powered sites, each with
its own individual configuration.

Additional site configurations are created in subdirectories within the 'sites'
317 318
directory. Each subdirectory must have a 'settings.php' file, which specifies
the configuration settings. The easiest way to create additional sites is to
319 320 321 322
copy the 'default' directory and modify the 'settings.php' file as appropriate.
The new directory name is constructed from the site's URL. The configuration for
www.example.com could be in 'sites/example.com/settings.php' (note that 'www.'
should be omitted if users can access your site at http://example.com/).
323 324

Sites do not have to have a different domain. You can also use subdomains and
325 326 327
subdirectories for Drupal sites. For example, example.com, sub.example.com, and
sub.example.com/site3 can all be defined as independent Drupal sites. The setup
for a configuration such as this would look like the following:
328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352

  sites/default/settings.php
  sites/example.com/settings.php
  sites/sub.example.com/settings.php
  sites/sub.example.com.site3/settings.php

When searching for a site configuration (for example www.sub.example.com/site3),
Drupal will search for configuration files in the following order, using the
first configuration it finds:

  sites/www.sub.example.com.site3/settings.php
  sites/sub.example.com.site3/settings.php
  sites/example.com.site3/settings.php
  sites/www.sub.example.com/settings.php
  sites/sub.example.com/settings.php
  sites/example.com/settings.php
  sites/default/settings.php

If you are installing on a non-standard port, the port number is treated as the
deepest subdomain. For example: http://www.example.com:8080/ could be loaded
from sites/8080.www.example.com/. The port number will be removed according to
the pattern above if no port-specific configuration is found, just like a real
subdomain.

Each site configuration can have its own site-specific modules and themes in
353
addition to those installed in the standard 'modules' and 'themes' directories.
354 355 356 357 358
To use site-specific modules or themes, simply create a 'modules' or 'themes'
directory within the site configuration directory. For example, if
sub.example.com has a custom theme and a custom module that should not be
accessible to other sites, the setup would look like this:

359 360 361 362
  sites/sub.example.com/
    settings.php
    themes/custom_theme
    modules/custom_module
363 364

NOTE: for more information about multiple virtual hosts or the configuration
365 366 367
settings, consult http://drupal.org/getting-started/6/install/multi-site

For more information on configuring Drupal's file system path in a multisite
368
configuration, see step 6 above.
369

370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377
MULTILINGUAL CONFIGURATION
--------------------------

By default, Drupal is installed in one language, and further languages may be
installed later.

For detailed instructions, visit http://drupal.org/documentation/multilingual

378 379 380
MORE INFORMATION
----------------

381 382
- See the Drupal.org online documentation:
  http://drupal.org/documentation
383

384 385
- For a list of security announcements, see the "Security advisories" page at
  http://drupal.org/security (available as an RSS feed). This page also
386
  describes how to subscribe to these announcements via e-mail.
387

388 389 390
- For information about the Drupal security process, or to find out how to
  report a potential security issue to the Drupal security team, see the
  "Security team" page at http://drupal.org/security-team
391

392 393 394
- For information about the wide range of available support options, visit
  http://drupal.org and click on Community and Support in the top or bottom
  navigation.